U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

Details

Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Molecular Formula H4N
Molecular Weight 18.0385
Optical Activity NONE
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 1

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of AMMONIUM CATION

SMILES

[NH4+]

InChI

InChIKey=QGZKDVFQNNGYKY-UHFFFAOYSA-O
InChI=1S/H3N/h1H3/p+1

HIDE SMILES / InChI
The ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula NH4+. Ammonium ions are a waste product of the metabolism of animals. In fish and aquatic invertebrates, it is excreted directly into the water. In mammals, sharks, and amphibians, it is converted in the urea cycle to urea, because urea is less toxic and can be stored more efficiently. In birds, reptiles, and terrestrial snails, metabolic ammonium is converted into uric acid, which is solid and can therefore be excreted with minimal water loss. Ammonium is an important source of nitrogen for many plant species, especially those growing on hypoxic soils. However, it is also toxic to most crop species and is rarely applied as a sole nitrogen source. The ammonium ion (NH4+) in the body plays an important role in the maintenance of acid-base balance. The kidney uses ammonium (NH4+) in place of sodium (Na+) to combine with fixed anions in maintaining acid-base balance, especially as a homeostatic compensatory mechanism in metabolic acidosis. When a loss of hydrogen ions (H+) occurs and serum chloride (Cl–) decreases, sodium is made available for combination with bicarbonate (HCO3–). This creates an excess of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) which leads to a rise in blood pH and a state of metabolic alkalosis. The therapeutic effects of Ammonium (as Ammonium Chloride) depend upon the ability of the kidney to utilize ammonia in the excretion of an excess of fixed anions and the conversion of ammonia to urea by the liver, thereby liberating hydrogen (H+) and chloride (Cl–) ions into the extracellular fluid.

Approval Year

Targets

Targets

Primary TargetPharmacologyConditionPotency
Target ID: CHEMBL1947
Sources: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22324546
Conditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Primary
AMMONIUM CHLORIDE

Approved Use

Unknown

Launch Date

4.55932805E11
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
A triphosphopyridine nucleotide-specific nitrite reductase from Escherichia coli.
1961 Dec
The nitrogen-fixing complex of bacteria.
1975 Mar 31
Effects of glutamate and sulphur containing amino acids on ammonia toxicity and methionine sulphoximine convulsions in mice.
1976 Jun 18
Acute changes of blood ammonia may predict short-term adverse effects of valproic acid.
1984 Nov
Venous, arterial, and arterialized-venous blood ammonia levels and their relationship to hepatic encephalopathy after propranolol.
1988 Mar
Effects of valproate and citrulline on ammonium-induced encephalopathy.
1994 Jan-Feb
Intracellular flux analysis applied to the effect of dissolved oxygen on hybridomas.
1995 Dec
Characterization of rabbit UDP-glucuronosyltransferase UGT1A7: tertiary amine glucuronidation is catalyzed by UGT1A7 and UGT1A4.
1997 Aug 15
Determination of ammonia in cerebrospinal fluid using the indophenol direct method.
1998 Jun-Aug
Petfood applications of inulin and oligofructose.
1999 Jul
Control of solitary gastric fundal varices and portosystemic encephalopathy accompanying liver cirrhosis by balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO): a case report.
1999 Mar-Apr
Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by zinc group metal compounds.
1999 Sep
Influence of ammonia on sodium absorption in rat proximal colon.
2000 Aug
Rye bread improves bowel function and decreases the concentrations of some compounds that are putative colon cancer risk markers in middle-aged women and men.
2000 Sep
Role of glutamine in cerebral nitrogen metabolism and ammonia neurotoxicity.
2001
Indomethacin prevents the development of experimental ammonia-induced brain edema in rats after portacaval anastomosis.
2001 Aug
Effects of zinc deficiency/zinc supplementation on ammonia metabolism in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis.
2001 Dec
Two hyperandrogenic adolescent girls with congenital portosystemic shunt.
2001 May
Identification of osmosensitive and ammonia-regulated genes in rat astrocytes by Northern blotting and differential display reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.
2001 Sep
Glutamine synthetase in brain: effect of ammonia.
2002 Aug-Sep
The significance of ammonia/gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) ratio for normality and liver disorders.
2002 Dec
Ammonia-induced heme oxygenase-1 expression in cultured rat astrocytes and rat brain in vivo.
2002 Dec
Ammonia aggravates stress-induced gastric mucosal oxidative injury through the cancellation of cytoprotective heat shock protein 70.
2002 Oct 15
[Ammonia and GABA-ergic neurotransmission in pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy].
2003
Functional identification of ion binding sites at the internal end of the pore in Shaker K+ channels.
2003 May 15
Phosphorylation of mouse glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase 2 (GFAT2) by cAMP-dependent protein kinase increases the enzyme activity.
2004 Jul 16
Acute ammonia intoxication induces an NMDA receptor-mediated increase in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase level and NAD metabolism in nuclei of rat brain cells.
2004 Jun
Chronic exposure to ammonia alters the modulation of phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein 2 by metabotropic glutamate receptors 1 and 5 in cerebellar neurons in culture.
2005
Anti-inflammatory effects of inhibiting the amine oxidase activity of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase.
2005 Nov
Role of ammonia and nitric oxide in the decrease in plasma prolactin levels in prehepatic portal hypertensive male rats.
2006
Liver-specific loss of beta-catenin blocks glutamine synthesis pathway activity and cytochrome p450 expression in mice.
2006 Apr
Long-term correction of ammonia metabolism and prolonged survival in ornithine transcarbamylase-deficient mice following liver-directed treatment with adeno-associated viral vectors.
2006 Jul
[The most frequent allergens in allergic contact dermatitis].
2006 Jul 14
Non-convulsive status epilepticus secondary to valproic acid-induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy.
2007 Aug
Role of angiotensin II in the enhancement of ammonia production and secretion by the proximal tubule in metabolic acidosis.
2008 Apr
Ammonia inhibits the C-type natriuretic peptide-dependent cyclic GMP synthesis and calcium accumulation in a rat brain endothelial cell line.
2008 May
Collecting duct-specific Rh C glycoprotein deletion alters basal and acidosis-stimulated renal ammonia excretion.
2009 Jun
In vivo monitoring of extracellular 13N-glutamine derived from blood-borne 13N-ammonia in rat striatum using microdialysis with radio-LC method.
2009 Oct 30
Ammonia toxicity to the brain: effects on creatine metabolism and transport and protective roles of creatine.
2010
Effect of intercalated cell-specific Rh C glycoprotein deletion on basal and metabolic acidosis-stimulated renal ammonia excretion.
2010 Aug
[Ammonia as a cause for hepatic encephalopathy].
2010 Feb
Increased Na, K-ATPase alpha2 isoform gene expression by ammonia in astrocytes and in brain in vivo.
2010 Nov
Molecular basis of inhibition of substrate hydrolysis by a ligand bound to the peripheral site of acetylcholinesterase.
2010 Sep 6
Resveratrol prevents ammonia toxicity in astroglial cells.
2012
Patents

Sample Use Guides

Solutions for intravenous infusion should not exceed a concentration of 1% to 2% of Ammonium Chloride. Dosage is dependent upon the condition and tolerance of the patient. It is recommended that the contents of one to two vials (100 to 200 mEq) be added to 500 or 1000 mL of isotonic (0.9%) sodium chloride injection. The rate of intravenous infusion should not exceed 5 mL per minute in adults (approximately 3 hours for infusion of 1000 mL). Dosage should be monitored by repeated serum bicarbonate determinations.
Route of Administration: Intravenous
HepG2 is a human HCC line purchased from ATCC and was cultured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) supplemented with 20 % fetal bovine serum (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA). HCC cells were treated with rapamycin (100 mkM) as an autophagy inducer and ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, 10mkM) as an autophagy inhibitor. NH4Cl inhibited rapamycin-induced autophagy in HCC cells.
Name Type Language
AMMONIUM CATION
Common Name English
AMMONIUM ION
Common Name English
AMMONIUM
Common Name English
AMMONIUM ION(1+)
Common Name English
AMMONIUM (NH4+)
Common Name English
AMMONIUM ION (NH4+)
Common Name English
AMMONIUM(1+)
Common Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
LOINC 1845-7
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:55:52 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:55:52 UTC 2023
LOINC 1844-0
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:55:52 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:55:52 UTC 2023
LOINC 14599-5
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:55:52 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:55:52 UTC 2023
Code System Code Type Description
DAILYMED
54S68520I4
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:55:52 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:55:52 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
WIKIPEDIA
Ammonium cation
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:55:52 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:55:52 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
RXCUI
1313310
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:55:52 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:55:52 UTC 2023
PRIMARY RxNorm
SMS_ID
100000176250
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:55:52 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:55:52 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
CAS
14798-03-9
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:55:52 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:55:52 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
EPA CompTox
DTXSID5043974
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:55:52 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:55:52 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
PUBCHEM
223
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:55:52 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:55:52 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
CHEBI
28938
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:55:52 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:55:52 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
FDA UNII
54S68520I4
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:55:52 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:55:52 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
RXCUI
709
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:55:52 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:55:52 UTC 2023
ALTERNATIVE