U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

Details

Stereochemistry ABSOLUTE
Molecular Formula C22H28O2
Molecular Weight 324.4573
Optical Activity UNSPECIFIED
Defined Stereocenters 6 / 6
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of ETONOGESTREL

SMILES

CC[C@@]12CC(=C)[C@]3([H])[C@@]4([H])CCC(=O)C=C4CC[C@@]3([H])[C@]2([H])CC[C@]1(C#C)O

InChI

InChIKey=GCKFUYQCUCGESZ-BPIQYHPVSA-N
InChI=1S/C22H28O2/c1-4-21-13-14(3)20-17-9-7-16(23)12-15(17)6-8-18(20)19(21)10-11-22(21,24)5-2/h2,12,17-20,24H,3-4,6-11,13H2,1H3/t17-,18-,19-,20+,21-,22-/m0/s1

HIDE SMILES / InChI

Description
Curator's Comment:: Description was created based on several sources, including http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2009/021529s004lbl.pdf

Etonogestrel, also known as 11-methylenelevonorgestrel and 3-keto-desogestrel, is a steroidal progestin used in hormonal contraceptives, most notably the subdermal implants Nexplanon and Implanon and the vaginal ring NuvaRing. Etonogestrel is a progestin or a synthetic form of the naturally occurring female sex hormone, progesterone. In a woman's normal menstrual cycle, an egg matures and is released from the ovaries (ovulation). The ovary then produces progesterone, preventing the release of further eggs and priming the lining of the womb for a possible pregnancy. If pregnancy occurs, progesterone levels in the body remain high, maintaining the womb lining. If pregnancy does not occur, progesterone levels in the body fall, resulting in a menstrual period. Etonogestrel tricks the body processes into thinking that ovulation has already occurred, by maintaining high levels of the synthetic progesterone. This prevents the release of eggs from the ovaries. Etonogestrel binds to the progesterone and estrogen receptors. Target cells include the female reproductive tract, the mammary gland, the hypothalamus, and the pituitary. Once bound to the receptor, progestins like etonogestrel will slow the frequency of release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus and blunt the pre-ovulatory LH (luteinizing hormone) surge.

Approval Year

Targets

Targets

Primary TargetPharmacologyConditionPotency
Conditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Preventing
IMPLANON

Approved Use

IMPLANON™ (etonogestrel implant) is indicated for women for the prevention of pregnancy.

Launch Date

1.15300801E12
Cmax

Cmax

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
0.59 ng/mL
75 μg 1 times / day multiple, oral
dose: 75 μg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: MULTIPLE
co-administered:
ETONOGESTREL serum
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE
food status: UNKNOWN
AUC

AUC

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
6.097 ng × h/mL
75 μg 1 times / day multiple, oral
dose: 75 μg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: MULTIPLE
co-administered:
ETONOGESTREL serum
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE
food status: UNKNOWN
T1/2

T1/2

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
29.2 h
75 μg 1 times / day multiple, oral
dose: 75 μg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: MULTIPLE
co-administered:
ETONOGESTREL serum
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE
food status: UNKNOWN
Funbound

Funbound

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
2%
ETONOGESTREL blood
Homo sapiens
population: UNKNOWN
age: UNKNOWN
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
Doses

Doses

DosePopulationAdverse events​
70 ug 1 times / day steady, subdermal
Recommended
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Route: subdermal
Route: steady
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Sources:
healthy, adult
n = 942
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: adult
Sex: F
Population Size: 942
Sources:
Disc. AE: Menstrual irregularity, Emotional lability...
AEs leading to
discontinuation/dose reduction:
Menstrual irregularity (11.1%)
Emotional lability (2.3%)
Weight increase (2.3%)
Headache (1.6%)
Acne (1.3%)
Depression (1%)
Sources:
70 ug 1 times / day steady, subdermal
Recommended
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Route: subdermal
Route: steady
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Sources:
healthy, adult
n = 942
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: adult
Sex: F
Population Size: 942
Sources:
Other AEs: Headache, Vaginitis...
Other AEs:
Headache (24.9%)
Vaginitis (14.5%)
Weight increase (13.7%)
Acne (13.5%)
Breast pain (12.8%)
Abdominal pain (10.9%)
Pharyngitis (10.5%)
Leukorrhea (9.6%)
Influenza-like symptoms (7.6%)
Dizziness (7.2%)
Dysmenorrhea (7.2%)
Back pain (6.8%)
Emotional lability (6.5%)
Nausea (6.4%)
Pain (5.6%)
Nervousness (5.6%)
Depression (5.5%)
Hypersensitivity (5.4%)
Injection site pain (5.2%)
Sources:
AEs

AEs

AESignificanceDosePopulation
Depression 1%
Disc. AE
70 ug 1 times / day steady, subdermal
Recommended
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Route: subdermal
Route: steady
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Sources:
healthy, adult
n = 942
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: adult
Sex: F
Population Size: 942
Sources:
Acne 1.3%
Disc. AE
70 ug 1 times / day steady, subdermal
Recommended
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Route: subdermal
Route: steady
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Sources:
healthy, adult
n = 942
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: adult
Sex: F
Population Size: 942
Sources:
Headache 1.6%
Disc. AE
70 ug 1 times / day steady, subdermal
Recommended
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Route: subdermal
Route: steady
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Sources:
healthy, adult
n = 942
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: adult
Sex: F
Population Size: 942
Sources:
Menstrual irregularity 11.1%
Disc. AE
70 ug 1 times / day steady, subdermal
Recommended
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Route: subdermal
Route: steady
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Sources:
healthy, adult
n = 942
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: adult
Sex: F
Population Size: 942
Sources:
Emotional lability 2.3%
Disc. AE
70 ug 1 times / day steady, subdermal
Recommended
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Route: subdermal
Route: steady
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Sources:
healthy, adult
n = 942
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: adult
Sex: F
Population Size: 942
Sources:
Weight increase 2.3%
Disc. AE
70 ug 1 times / day steady, subdermal
Recommended
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Route: subdermal
Route: steady
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Sources:
healthy, adult
n = 942
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: adult
Sex: F
Population Size: 942
Sources:
Pharyngitis 10.5%
70 ug 1 times / day steady, subdermal
Recommended
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Route: subdermal
Route: steady
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Sources:
healthy, adult
n = 942
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: adult
Sex: F
Population Size: 942
Sources:
Abdominal pain 10.9%
70 ug 1 times / day steady, subdermal
Recommended
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Route: subdermal
Route: steady
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Sources:
healthy, adult
n = 942
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: adult
Sex: F
Population Size: 942
Sources:
Breast pain 12.8%
70 ug 1 times / day steady, subdermal
Recommended
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Route: subdermal
Route: steady
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Sources:
healthy, adult
n = 942
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: adult
Sex: F
Population Size: 942
Sources:
Acne 13.5%
70 ug 1 times / day steady, subdermal
Recommended
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Route: subdermal
Route: steady
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Sources:
healthy, adult
n = 942
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: adult
Sex: F
Population Size: 942
Sources:
Weight increase 13.7%
70 ug 1 times / day steady, subdermal
Recommended
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Route: subdermal
Route: steady
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Sources:
healthy, adult
n = 942
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: adult
Sex: F
Population Size: 942
Sources:
Vaginitis 14.5%
70 ug 1 times / day steady, subdermal
Recommended
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Route: subdermal
Route: steady
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Sources:
healthy, adult
n = 942
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: adult
Sex: F
Population Size: 942
Sources:
Headache 24.9%
70 ug 1 times / day steady, subdermal
Recommended
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Route: subdermal
Route: steady
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Sources:
healthy, adult
n = 942
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: adult
Sex: F
Population Size: 942
Sources:
Injection site pain 5.2%
70 ug 1 times / day steady, subdermal
Recommended
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Route: subdermal
Route: steady
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Sources:
healthy, adult
n = 942
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: adult
Sex: F
Population Size: 942
Sources:
Hypersensitivity 5.4%
70 ug 1 times / day steady, subdermal
Recommended
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Route: subdermal
Route: steady
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Sources:
healthy, adult
n = 942
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: adult
Sex: F
Population Size: 942
Sources:
Depression 5.5%
70 ug 1 times / day steady, subdermal
Recommended
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Route: subdermal
Route: steady
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Sources:
healthy, adult
n = 942
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: adult
Sex: F
Population Size: 942
Sources:
Nervousness 5.6%
70 ug 1 times / day steady, subdermal
Recommended
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Route: subdermal
Route: steady
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Sources:
healthy, adult
n = 942
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: adult
Sex: F
Population Size: 942
Sources:
Pain 5.6%
70 ug 1 times / day steady, subdermal
Recommended
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Route: subdermal
Route: steady
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Sources:
healthy, adult
n = 942
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: adult
Sex: F
Population Size: 942
Sources:
Nausea 6.4%
70 ug 1 times / day steady, subdermal
Recommended
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Route: subdermal
Route: steady
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Sources:
healthy, adult
n = 942
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: adult
Sex: F
Population Size: 942
Sources:
Emotional lability 6.5%
70 ug 1 times / day steady, subdermal
Recommended
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Route: subdermal
Route: steady
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Sources:
healthy, adult
n = 942
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: adult
Sex: F
Population Size: 942
Sources:
Back pain 6.8%
70 ug 1 times / day steady, subdermal
Recommended
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Route: subdermal
Route: steady
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Sources:
healthy, adult
n = 942
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: adult
Sex: F
Population Size: 942
Sources:
Dizziness 7.2%
70 ug 1 times / day steady, subdermal
Recommended
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Route: subdermal
Route: steady
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Sources:
healthy, adult
n = 942
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: adult
Sex: F
Population Size: 942
Sources:
Dysmenorrhea 7.2%
70 ug 1 times / day steady, subdermal
Recommended
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Route: subdermal
Route: steady
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Sources:
healthy, adult
n = 942
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: adult
Sex: F
Population Size: 942
Sources:
Influenza-like symptoms 7.6%
70 ug 1 times / day steady, subdermal
Recommended
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Route: subdermal
Route: steady
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Sources:
healthy, adult
n = 942
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: adult
Sex: F
Population Size: 942
Sources:
Leukorrhea 9.6%
70 ug 1 times / day steady, subdermal
Recommended
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Route: subdermal
Route: steady
Dose: 70 ug, 1 times / day
Sources:
healthy, adult
n = 942
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: adult
Sex: F
Population Size: 942
Sources:
Overview

Overview

CYP3A4CYP2C9CYP2D6hERG



OverviewOther

Other InhibitorOther SubstrateOther Inducer




Drug as perpetrator​

Drug as perpetrator​

TargetModalityActivityMetaboliteClinical evidence
yes
Drug as victim

Drug as victim

TargetModalityActivityMetaboliteClinical evidence
no
no
no
no
no
yes
yes (co-administration study)
Comment: Coadministration of Efavirenz (CYP3A4 inducer) decreased Etonogestrel plasma concentration one week after implant insertion by 84%.
Page: 5, 15, (ClinPharm) 14, 25
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
The effect of progestins on vascular endothelial growth factor, oestrogen receptor and progesterone receptor immunoreactivity and endothelial cell density in human endometrium.
2000 Aug
Non-protein bound dienogest in serum and salivary dienogest in women taking the oral contraceptives Certostat and Valette.
2001 Apr
Etonogestrel implant (Implanon) for contraception.
2001 Aug
Implant contraception.
2001 Dec
Implanon: when is the ideal time to insert?
2001 Jul
Endometrial effects of etonogestrel (Implanon) contraceptive implant.
2001 Jun
Implanon contraceptive implants: effects on carbohydrate metabolism.
2001 Mar
Implanon: a critical review.
2001 Mar
Efficacy, tolerability and acceptability of a novel contraceptive vaginal ring releasing etonogestrel and ethinyl oestradiol.
2001 Mar
Long-acting progestogens.
2002 Apr
Suppression of spermatogenesis by etonogestrel implants with depot testosterone: potential for long-acting male contraception.
2002 Aug
Gateways to clinical trials.
2002 Dec
Implanon.
2002 Dec
Nonmenstrual adverse events during use of implantable contraceptives for women: data from clinical trials.
2002 Jan
Mechanisms that explain the contraceptive action of progestin implants for women.
2002 Jan
Progestin implants for female contraception.
2002 Jan
Toxicology of progestogens of implantable contraceptives for women.
2002 Jan
Investigation of a novel preparation of testosterone decanoate in men: pharmacokinetics and spermatogenic suppression with etonogestrel implants.
2002 Nov
An assessment of the use of Implanon in three community services.
2002 Oct
Ultrasonographic features of the endometrium and the ovaries in women on etonogestrel implant.
2002 Oct
Efficacy, cycle control, and user acceptability of a novel combined contraceptive vaginal ring.
2002 Sep
A screening study on the liability of eight different female sex steroids to inhibit CYP2C9, 2C19 and 3A4 activities in human liver microsomes.
2003 Aug
Implantable contraceptives for women.
2003 Jan-Feb
[A randomized study comparing the efficacy and bleeding pattern of Implanon and Norplant hormonal contraceptive implant].
2003 Jul
The impalpable Implanon: a case report.
2003 Jul
Implanon implant detection with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging.
2003 Oct
New delivery systems in contraception: vaginal rings.
2004 Apr
Implanon audit.
2004 Apr
Acceptability and side-effects of Implanon in Switzerland: a retrospective study by the Implanon Swiss Study Group.
2004 Dec
The contraceptive vaginal ring, NuvaRing, and antimycotic co-medication.
2004 Feb
The combined contraceptive vaginal ring (NuvaRing) and lipid metabolism: a comparative study.
2004 May
Implanon studies conducted in Indonesia.
2004 Nov
Effect of etonogestrel subdermal contraceptive implant (Implanon) on liver function tests -- a randomized comparative study with Norplant implants.
2004 Nov
Depot testosterone with etonogestrel implants result in induction of azoospermia in all men for long-term contraception.
2004 Nov
A comparative study on the effects of a contraceptive vaginal ring NuvaRing and an oral contraceptive on carbohydrate metabolism and adrenal and thyroid function.
2004 Sep
Clinical challenge with Implanon removal: a case report.
2005 Apr
Ultrasound localisation of non-palpable Implanon.
2005 Apr
FFPRHC Guidance (July 2005): The use of contraception outside the terms of the product licence.
2005 Jul
Gateways to clinical trials.
2005 Jun
One year study of Implanon on the adverse events and discontinuation.
2005 Mar
Safety and efficacy of Implanon, a single-rod implantable contraceptive containing etonogestrel.
2005 May
How to remove impalpable Implanon implants.
2005 Oct
An assessment of the first 3 years' use of Implanon in Luton.
2005 Oct
[Ectopic pregnancy with etonogestrel contraceptive implant (Implanon): first case].
2005 Oct
A pilot study to assess the effect of three short-term treatments on frequent and/or prolonged bleeding compared to placebo in women using Implanon.
2006 Jan
Patents

Sample Use Guides

Usual Adult Dose for Contraception One 68 mg implant inserted subdermally. The implant should not be left in place more than three years.
Route of Administration: Transdermal
Etonogestrel (1716 pg/mL) significantly altered antiretroviral uptake across THP-1, BC-3 (CD8+) cell lines, incubated for one hour with tenofovir and emtricitabine to assess uptake except
Name Type Language
ETONOGESTREL
INN   MART.   MI   ORANGE BOOK   USAN   VANDF   WHO-DD  
USAN   INN  
Official Name English
ETONOGESTREL [MI]
Common Name English
ORG 3236
Code English
ETONOGESTREL [INN]
Common Name English
DESOGESTREL IMPURITY D
EP  
Common Name English
ETONOGESTREL [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
13-ETHYL-17-HYDROXY-11-METHYLENE-18,19-DINOR-17.ALPHA.-PREGN-4-EN-20-YN-3-ONE
Common Name English
ETONOGESTREL [ORANGE BOOK]
Common Name English
ETONOGESTREL [USAN]
Common Name English
NUVARING COMPONENT ETONOGESTREL
Common Name English
IMPLANON
Brand Name English
ORG-3236
Code English
ETONOGESTREL [MART.]
Common Name English
ETONOGESTREL [VANDF]
Common Name English
DESOGESTREL RELATED COMPOUND C [USP-RS]
Common Name English
ETONOGESTREL [USP-RS]
Common Name English
DESOGESTREL IMPURITY D [EP]
Common Name English
18,19-DINOR-17.ALPHA.-PREGN-4-EN-20-YN-3-ONE, 13-ETHYL-17-HYDROXY-11-METHYLENE-
Common Name English
DESOGESTREL RELATED COMPOUND C
USP-RS  
Common Name English
DESOGESTREL SPECIFIED IMPURITY D [EP]
Common Name English
ETONOGESTREL COMPONENT OF NUVARING
Common Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
NDF-RT N0000011301
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021
WHO-ATC G03AC08
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021
NCI_THESAURUS C776
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021
WHO-VATC QG03AC08
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021
LIVERTOX 388
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021
NDF-RT N0000175602
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021
Code System Code Type Description
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1531
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
DRUG CENTRAL
1110
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
USP_CATALOG
1173268
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021
PRIMARY USP-RS
RXCUI
14584
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021
PRIMARY RxNorm
IUPHAR
7590
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
LACTMED
Etonogestrel
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
NCI_THESAURUS
C47528
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
ECHA (EC/EINECS)
258-936-2
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
INN
6832
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
MERCK INDEX
M5198
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021
PRIMARY Merck Index
EVMPD
SUB07335MIG
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
FDA UNII
304GTH6RNH
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
DRUG BANK
DB00294
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
CAS
54048-10-1
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
USP_CATALOG
1268783
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021
PRIMARY USP-RS
EPA CompTox
54048-10-1
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
WIKIPEDIA
ETONOGESTREL
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
PUBCHEM
6917715
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 12:56:36 UTC 2021
PRIMARY