U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

Details

Stereochemistry RACEMIC
Molecular Formula C24H26N2O4
Molecular Weight 406.4742
Optical Activity ( + / - )
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 1
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of CARVEDILOL

SMILES

COC1=C(OCCNCC(O)COC2=CC=CC3=C2C4=C(N3)C=CC=C4)C=CC=C1

InChI

InChIKey=OGHNVEJMJSYVRP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI=1S/C24H26N2O4/c1-28-21-10-4-5-11-22(21)29-14-13-25-15-17(27)16-30-23-12-6-9-20-24(23)18-7-2-3-8-19(18)26-20/h2-12,17,25-27H,13-16H2,1H3

HIDE SMILES / InChI
Carvedilol competitively blocks β1, β2 and α1 receptors. The drug lacks sympathomimetic activity and has vasodilating properties that are exerted primarily through α1-blockade. Animal models indicate that carvedilol confers protection against myocardial necrosis, arrhythmia and cell damage caused by oxidising free radicals, and the drug has no adverse effects on plasma lipid profiles. COREG® (carvedilol) is a racemic mixture in which nonselective β-adrenoreceptor blocking activity is present in the S(-) enantiomer and α1-adrenergic blocking activity is present in both R(+) and S(-) enantiomers at equal potency. Carvedilol is the first drug of its kind to be approved for the treatment of congestive heart failure, and is now the standard of care for this devastating disease. Carvedilol is also confirmed as effective in the management of mild to moderate hypertension and ischaemic heart disease.

Originator

Curator's Comment: reference retrieved from http://www.drugfuture.com/chemdata/carvedilol.html

Approval Year

Targets

Targets

Conditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Primary
COREG

Approved Use

COREG® (carvedilol) is indicated for the treatment of mild-to-severe chronic heart failure of ischemic or cardiomyopathic origin, usually in addition to diuretics, ACE inhibitors, and digitalis, to increase survival and, also, to reduce the risk of hospitalization. COREG is indicated to reduce cardiovascular mortality in clinically stable patients who have survived the acute phase of a myocardial infarction and have a left ventricular ejection fraction of ≤40% (with or without symptomatic heart failure). COREG is indicated for the management of essential hypertension. It can be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents, especially thiazide-type diuretics.

Launch Date

8.1103677E11
Primary
COREG

Approved Use

COREG® (carvedilol) is indicated for the treatment of mild-to-severe chronic heart failure of ischemic or cardiomyopathic origin, usually in addition to diuretics, ACE inhibitors, and digitalis, to increase survival and, also, to reduce the risk of hospitalization. COREG is indicated to reduce cardiovascular mortality in clinically stable patients who have survived the acute phase of a myocardial infarction and have a left ventricular ejection fraction of ≤40% (with or without symptomatic heart failure). COREG is indicated for the management of essential hypertension. It can be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents, especially thiazide-type diuretics.

Launch Date

8.1103677E11
Primary
COREG

Approved Use

COREG® (carvedilol) is indicated for the treatment of mild-to-severe chronic heart failure of ischemic or cardiomyopathic origin, usually in addition to diuretics, ACE inhibitors, and digitalis, to increase survival and, also, to reduce the risk of hospitalization. COREG is indicated to reduce cardiovascular mortality in clinically stable patients who have survived the acute phase of a myocardial infarction and have a left ventricular ejection fraction of ≤40% (with or without symptomatic heart failure). COREG is indicated for the management of essential hypertension. It can be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents, especially thiazide-type diuretics.

Launch Date

8.1103677E11
Cmax

Cmax

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
18.4 ng/mL
6.25 mg 2 times / day steady-state, oral
dose: 6.25 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: STEADY-STATE
co-administered:
CARVEDILOL, (+)- plasma
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: FASTED
8.46 ng/mL
6.25 mg 2 times / day steady-state, oral
dose: 6.25 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: STEADY-STATE
co-administered:
CARVEDILOL, (-)- plasma
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: FASTED
26.5 ng/mL
6.25 mg 2 times / day steady-state, oral
dose: 6.25 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: STEADY-STATE
co-administered:
CARVEDILOL plasma
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: UNKNOWN
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
AUC

AUC

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
94.3 ng × h/mL
6.25 mg 2 times / day steady-state, oral
dose: 6.25 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: STEADY-STATE
co-administered:
CARVEDILOL, (+)- plasma
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: FASTED
42.2 ng × h/mL
6.25 mg 2 times / day steady-state, oral
dose: 6.25 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: STEADY-STATE
co-administered:
CARVEDILOL, (-)- plasma
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: FASTED
139 ng × h/mL
6.25 mg 2 times / day steady-state, oral
dose: 6.25 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: STEADY-STATE
co-administered:
CARVEDILOL plasma
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: UNKNOWN
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
Doses

Doses

DosePopulationAdverse events​
300 mg single, oral
Overdose
Dose: 300 mg
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 300 mg
Co-administed with::
lorazepam(7 mg)
Sources:
unknown, 41 years
n = 1
Health Status: unknown
Age Group: 41 years
Sex: M
Population Size: 1
Sources:
Other AEs: Wheezing...
Other AEs:
Wheezing (1 patient)
Sources:
80 mg 1 times / day multiple, oral
Highest studied dose
Dose: 80 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 80 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 66.7±12.0 years
n = 7
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: chronic heart failure
Age Group: 66.7±12.0 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 7
Sources:
375 mg single, oral
Overdose
Dose: 375 mg
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 375 mg
Co-administed with::
simvastatin(fifteen 20-mg tablets)
Sources:
unhealthy, 84 years
n = 1
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: 84 years
Sex: M
Population Size: 1
Sources:
Other AEs: Hypotension...
Other AEs:
Hypotension (1 patient)
Sources:
50 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 50 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 50 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 765
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: heart failure
Age Group: adult
Population Size: 765
Sources:
Disc. AE: Hypotension...
AEs leading to
discontinuation/dose reduction:
Hypotension (0.7%)
Sources:
20 mg 2 times / day multiple, oral
Dose: 20 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 20 mg, 2 times / day
Sources: Page: p. 61
unhealthy, adult
n = 54
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: adult
Population Size: 54
Sources: Page: p. 61
Disc. AE: Congestive cardiac failure...
AEs leading to
discontinuation/dose reduction:
Congestive cardiac failure (moderate, 1 patient)
Sources: Page: p. 61
25 mg 2 times / day steady, oral
Dose: 25 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 25 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 1156
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: severe heart failure
Age Group: adult
Population Size: 1156
Sources:
Disc. AE: Dizziness...
AEs leading to
discontinuation/dose reduction:
Dizziness (1.3%)
Sources:
6.25 mg 2 times / day multiple, oral
Dose: 6.25 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 6.25 mg, 2 times / day
Sources: Page: p. 61
unhealthy, adult
n = 54
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: adult
Population Size: 54
Sources: Page: p. 61
Disc. AE: Abdominal distension...
AEs leading to
discontinuation/dose reduction:
Abdominal distension (1 patient)
Sources: Page: p. 61
6.25 mg 2 times / day multiple, oral
Dose: 6.25 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 6.25 mg, 2 times / day
Sources: Page: p. 61
unhealthy, adult
n = 54
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: adult
Population Size: 54
Sources: Page: p. 61
Disc. AE: Rash...
AEs leading to
discontinuation/dose reduction:
Rash (moderate, 1 patient)
Sources: Page: p. 61
AEs

AEs

AESignificanceDosePopulation
Wheezing 1 patient
300 mg single, oral
Overdose
Dose: 300 mg
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 300 mg
Co-administed with::
lorazepam(7 mg)
Sources:
unknown, 41 years
n = 1
Health Status: unknown
Age Group: 41 years
Sex: M
Population Size: 1
Sources:
Hypotension 1 patient
375 mg single, oral
Overdose
Dose: 375 mg
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 375 mg
Co-administed with::
simvastatin(fifteen 20-mg tablets)
Sources:
unhealthy, 84 years
n = 1
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: 84 years
Sex: M
Population Size: 1
Sources:
Hypotension 0.7%
Disc. AE
50 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 50 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 50 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 765
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: heart failure
Age Group: adult
Population Size: 765
Sources:
Congestive cardiac failure moderate, 1 patient
Disc. AE
20 mg 2 times / day multiple, oral
Dose: 20 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 20 mg, 2 times / day
Sources: Page: p. 61
unhealthy, adult
n = 54
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: adult
Population Size: 54
Sources: Page: p. 61
Dizziness 1.3%
Disc. AE
25 mg 2 times / day steady, oral
Dose: 25 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 25 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 1156
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: severe heart failure
Age Group: adult
Population Size: 1156
Sources:
Abdominal distension 1 patient
Disc. AE
6.25 mg 2 times / day multiple, oral
Dose: 6.25 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 6.25 mg, 2 times / day
Sources: Page: p. 61
unhealthy, adult
n = 54
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: adult
Population Size: 54
Sources: Page: p. 61
Rash moderate, 1 patient
Disc. AE
6.25 mg 2 times / day multiple, oral
Dose: 6.25 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 6.25 mg, 2 times / day
Sources: Page: p. 61
unhealthy, adult
n = 54
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: adult
Population Size: 54
Sources: Page: p. 61
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
The pharmacokinetics of carvedilol and its metabolites after single and multiple dose oral administration in patients with hypertension and renal insufficiency.
1999 Jun
Carvedilol reduces ischaemic skeletal muscle necrosis.
1999 Sep
Pulmonary function, cardiac function, and exercise capacity in a follow-up of patients with congestive heart failure treated with carvedilol.
1999 Sep
Carvedilol prevents epinephrine-induced apoptosis in human coronary artery endothelial cells: modulation of Fas/Fas ligand and caspase-3 pathway.
2000 Feb
Carvedilol affects the physiological and behavioral response to smoked cocaine in humans.
2000 Jul 1
Comitogenic effect of catecholamines on rat cardiac fibroblasts in culture.
2000 Nov
Improvement in cardiac function and free fatty acid metabolism in a case of dilated cardiomyopathy with CD36 deficiency.
2000 Sep
Levosimendan.
2001
[Comparison of carvedilol and atenolol efficacy in patients with stable effort angina].
2001
Carvedilol as therapy in pediatric heart failure: an initial multicenter experience.
2001 Apr
Carvedilol--a new dimension in pediatric heart failure therapy.
2001 Apr
[Economic study of carvedilol in heart failure. A cost effectiveness study in France].
2001 Feb
Current role of beta-adrenergic blockers in the treatment of chronic congestive heart failure.
2001 Jan 15
Effects of carvedilol on left ventricular function, mass, and scintigraphic findings in isolated left ventricular non-compaction.
2001 Jul
Catecholamines stimulate interleukin-6 synthesis in rat cardiac fibroblasts.
2001 Jul
Stereoselective effects of (R)- and (S)-carvedilol in humans.
2001 Jul
Bucindolol, a nonselective beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, decreases beta-adrenergic receptor density in cultured embryonic chick cardiac myocyte membranes.
2001 Jun
Comparative effects of carvedilol and metoprolol on left ventricular ejection fraction in heart failure: results of a meta-analysis.
2001 Jun
Plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and adrenomedullin: prognostic utility and prediction of benefit from carvedilol in chronic ischemic left ventricular dysfunction. Australia-New Zealand Heart Failure Group.
2001 Jun 1
Protective effect of carvedilol on chenodeoxycholate induction of the permeability transition pore.
2001 Jun 1
Relationship between tumor necrosis factor-alpha production and oxidative stress in the failing hearts of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.
2001 Jun 15
Nebivolol, carvedilol and metoprolol do not influence cardiac Ca(2+) sensitivity.
2001 Jun 22
Random research.
2001 Jun 26
[Options in drug combinations].
2001 Mar
[Adrenergic beta inhibitors in heart insufficiency: which and when?].
2001 Mar
Determination of carvedilol in human cardiac tissue by high-performance liquid chromatography.
2001 Mar
Are all beta-blockers the same for chronic heart failure?
2001 Mar
Benefits of beta-blockers in heart failure: a class specific effect?
2001 May
Mechanisms of carvedilol action in human congestive heart failure.
2001 May
Influence of carvedilol on hospitalizations in heart failure: incidence, resource utilization and costs. U.S. Carvedilol Heart Failure Study Group.
2001 May
Race and the response to adrenergic blockade with carvedilol in patients with chronic heart failure.
2001 May 3
Expanding indications for beta-blockers in heart failure.
2001 May 31
Effect of carvedilol on survival in severe chronic heart failure.
2001 May 31
Separation of carvedilol enantiomers in very small volumes of human plasma by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence.
2001 May 5
Economic impact of beta blockade in heart failure.
2001 May 7
Patents

Sample Use Guides

Take with food. Individualize dosage and monitor during up-titration.• Heart failure: Start at 3.125 mg twice daily and increase to 6.25, 12.5, and then 25 mg twice daily over intervals of at least 2 weeks. Maintain lower doses if higher doses are not tolerated.• Left ventricular dysfunction following myocardial infarction: Start at 6.25 mg twice daily and increase to 12.5 mg then 25 mg twice daily afterintervals of 3 to 10 days. A lower starting dose or slower titration may be used.• Hypertension: Start at 6.25 mg twice daily and increase if needed for blood pressure control to 12.5 mg then 25 mg twice daily over intervals of 1 to 2 weeks.
Route of Administration: Oral
Compared with the PDGF-stimulated control, DNA synthesis decreased significantly to 60.3% +/- 10.4% and 18.3% +/- 5.9% in the presence of 1 and 10 microM of carvedilol, respectively (P < 0.05, each). Carvedilol significantly inhibited the activity of VSMCs stimulated by ET-1 and ANG-II. The IC50 of carvedilol was 1-10 microM. CsA only inhibited VSMCs significantly in the PDGF-stimulated subgroup. The addition of CsA in the presence of carvedilol did not affect the inhibitory activity of carvedilol. The pattern of inhibition in the combined group was uniform and similar to that of the carvedilol alone group, regardless of the stimulator used.
Name Type Language
CARVEDILOL
EP   HSDB   INN   JAN   MART.   MI   ORANGE BOOK   USAN   USP   USP-RS   VANDF   WHO-DD  
INN   USAN  
Official Name English
CARVEDILOL [VANDF]
Common Name English
CARVEDILOL [USAN]
Common Name English
BM-14.190
Code English
NSC-758694
Code English
KREDEX
Brand Name English
2-PROPANOL, 1-(9H-CARBAZOL-4-YLOXY)-3-((2-(2-METHOXYPHENOXY)ETHYL)AMINO)-, (±)-
Systematic Name English
TALLITON
Common Name English
CARVEDILOL [MI]
Common Name English
CARVEDILOL [ORANGE BOOK]
Common Name English
CORONIS
Common Name English
BM 14.190
Code English
DILATREND
Brand Name English
Carvedilol [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
C07AG02
Code English
CARVEDILOL [MART.]
Common Name English
SKF-105517
Code English
COREG
Brand Name English
1-(CARBAZOL-4-YLOXY)-3-((2-(O-METHOXY-PHENOXY)ETHYL)AMINO)-2-PROPANOL
Common Name English
KORVASAN
Common Name English
CARVEDILOL [HSDB]
Common Name English
DQ-2466
Code English
CARVEDILOL [EP MONOGRAPH]
Common Name English
ARTIST
Brand Name English
DIMITONE
Brand Name English
CARVEDILOL [JAN]
Common Name English
EUCARDIC
Brand Name English
CARVEDILOL [USP-RS]
Common Name English
BM-14190
Code English
BM-14-190
Code English
SK&F-105517
Code English
QUERTO
Brand Name English
(±)-1-CARBAZOL-4-YLOXY)-3-((2-(O-METHOXYPHENOXY)ETHYL)AMINO)-2-PROPANOL
Common Name English
carvedilol [INN]
Common Name English
CARVEDILOL [USP MONOGRAPH]
Common Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
NDF-RT N0000009923
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:37 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:37 UTC 2023
NDF-RT N0000175556
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:37 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:37 UTC 2023
WHO-ATC C07FX06
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:36 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:36 UTC 2023
LIVERTOX NBK548399
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:36 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:36 UTC 2023
NDF-RT N0000175553
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:37 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:37 UTC 2023
WHO-VATC QC07AG02
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:37 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:37 UTC 2023
NDF-RT N0000009924
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:37 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:37 UTC 2023
NCI_THESAURUS C29576
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:37 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:37 UTC 2023
WHO-ATC C07AG02
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:36 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:36 UTC 2023
NDF-RT N0000000099
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:37 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:37 UTC 2023
Code System Code Type Description
ChEMBL
CHEMBL723
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:36 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:36 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
EPA CompTox
DTXSID8022747
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:36 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:36 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
DAILYMED
0K47UL67F2
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:36 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:36 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
RS_ITEM_NUM
1096622
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:37 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:37 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
MESH
C043211
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:36 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:36 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
NCI_THESAURUS
C28906
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:37 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:37 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
DRUG BANK
DB01136
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:36 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:36 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
LACTMED
Carvedilol
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:36 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:36 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
DRUG CENTRAL
522
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:36 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:36 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
JAPANESE REVIEW
ARTIST
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:36 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:36 UTC 2023
PRIMARY APPROVED AUGUST 2015
RXCUI
20352
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:37 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:37 UTC 2023
PRIMARY RxNorm
EVMPD
SUB06153MIG
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:36 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:36 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
IUPHAR
551
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:36 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:36 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
NSC
758694
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:37 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:37 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
MERCK INDEX
M3143
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:36 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:36 UTC 2023
PRIMARY Merck Index
FDA UNII
0K47UL67F2
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:36 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:36 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
HSDB
7044
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:36 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:36 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
USAN
Z-25
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:37 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:37 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
WIKIPEDIA
Carvedilol
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:37 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:37 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
PUBCHEM
2585
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:37 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:37 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
INN
5333
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:36 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:36 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
CAS
72956-09-3
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:36 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:36 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
CHEBI
3441
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:36 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:36 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
SMS_ID
100000092577
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:37 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:29:37 UTC 2023
PRIMARY