U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

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Cabotegravir is an investigational drug that is being studied for the treatment and prevention of HIV infection. Cabotegravir belongs to a class (group) of HIV drugs called integrase inhibitors. Integrase inhibitors block an HIV enzyme called integrase. (An enzyme is a protein that starts or increases the speed of a chemical reaction.) By blocking integrase, integrase inhibitors prevent HIV from multiplying and can reduce the amount of HIV in the body. Cabotegravir does not require boosting with an additional drug. Two forms of cabotegravir are being studied: tablets that are taken by mouth (known as oral cabotegravir or oral CAB) and a long-acting injectable form that is injected into the muscle (known as cabotegravir LA or CAB LA; LA stands for "long-acting"). (A long-acting drug formulation works over a long period of time. Using this type of drug might mean that the drug could be taken less often, making a treatment or prevention regimen simpler to take.) Cabotegravir is in Phase-III clinical trials for HIV infections.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)

Melphalan flufenamide ethyl ester (melflufen, previously denoted J1) is a peptidase-potentiated dipeptide prodrug of alkylating agent melphalan. Melflufen readily penetrates membranes and an equilibrium is rapidly achieved, followed by enzymatic cleavage in aminopeptidase positive cells, which results in trapping of less lipophilic metabolites. This targeting effect results in very high intracellular concentrations of its metabolite melphalan and subsequent apoptotic cell death. This results in a potency increase (melflufen vs melphalan) ranging from 10- to several 100-fold in different in vitro models. Melflufen triggers a rapid, robust, and an irreversible DNA damage which may account for its ability to overcome melphalan-resistance in multiple myeloma cells. Melflufen has been granted orphan drug designation for the treatment of multiple myeloma.
Viloxazine is an antidepressant drug was used to treat patients with depression. Viloxazine inhibits noradrenaline uptake. This drug was approved in some Europe countries, but not in the USA, but then it was discontinued because of competition from other drugs. In the frame of drug repositioning, Viloxazine participated in clinical trials for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Phase II of trials was successfully passed.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)


Ponesimod is an experimental drug for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) graft-versus-host disease and psoriasis. It acts on certain types of white blood cells (lymphocytes) which are involved in the autoimmune attack on myelin seen in multiple sclerosis (MS). Ponesimod is an orally active, reversible, and selective sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor (S1PR1) modulator. The drug is in phase II clinical trial for the treatment of graft-versus-host disease. In addition, the phase III clinical trial comparing ponesimod to teriflunomide in relapsing-remitting MS is ongoing.
Tivozanib (formerly AV-951, KRN-951) is a potent and selective VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor and inhibits angiogenesis and vascular permeability in tumor tissues. It completed phase III a trial investigation for the treatment of renal cell carcinomas, but has not been still approved. In addition, this drug is in the phase II of clinical trial for the investigation it in patients with glioblastoma and colorectal carcinoma.
TUCATINIB (ONT-380 or ARRY-380) is an orally active, reversible and selective small-molecule HER2 inhibitor invented by Array and licensed to Cascadian Therapeutics (previously named Oncothyreon) for development, manufacturing and commercialization. HER2, a growth factor receptor that is over-expressed in multiple cancers, including breast, ovarian, and stomach cancer. HER2 mediates cell growth, differentiation and survival, and tumors that overexpress HER2 are more aggressive and historically have been associated with poorer overall survival compared with HER2-negative cancers. ONT-380 is highly active as a single agent and in combination with both chemotherapy and Herceptin® (trastuzumab) in xenograft models of HER2+ breast cancer, including models of CNS metastases that were refractory to Tykerb® (lapatinib) or neratinib treatment. In a Phase 1 single agent clinical study, ONT-380 administered orally twice a day was well tolerated and demonstrated anti-tumor activity in heavily pre-treated HER2+ breast cancer patients with metastatic disease. Based on the strength of these preclinical and clinical trials, ONT-380 is advancing in one Phase 2 and three Phase 1b combination trials in patients with metastatic breast cancer. A second study reported the CNS activity of ONT-380 in combination with either T-DM1 or trastuzumab or capecitabine. Patients with brain metastases assessable for response were included in the combined analysis. Responses and clinical benefit in the CNS were reported with the three combinations tested, supporting future development of the drug for this particular indication.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)



Fostemsavir (BMS-663068) is an investigational attachment inhibitor with a unique mechanism of action. It is a prodrug of temsavir, which binds to HIV envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120), thereby preventing viral attachment to the host CD4 cell surface receptor. In the absence of effective binding of HIV gp120 with the host CD4 receptor, HIV does not enter the host cell. Because fostemsavir has a novel mechanism of action, the drug should have full activity against HIV strains that have developed resistance to other classes of antiretroviral medications. In a phase 2b study of treatment-experienced individuals, fostemsavir appeared to be well tolerated. Phase 3 studies are ongoing.
Osilodrostat (INN, USAN) (developmental code name LCI-699) is an orally active, non-steroidal corticosteroid biosynthesis inhibitor which is under development by Novartis for the treatment of Cushing's syndrome and pituitary ACTH hypersecretion (a specific subtype of Cushing's syndrome). Osilodrostat specifically acts as a potent and selective inhibitor of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) and at higher dosages of 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1). Osilodrostat decreases plasma and urinary aldosterone levels and rapidly corrects hypokalemia, in patients with primary aldosteronism and hypertension. At doses ≥1 mg o.d. Osilodrostat markedly increases 11-deoxycortisol plasma levels and blunts ACTH-stimulated cortisol release in ≈20% of patients, consistent with the inhibition of CYP11B1. In patients with resistant hypertension, Osilodrostat produces a non-significant reduction in blood pressure, possibly due to the increase in 11-deoxycortisol levels and the stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal feedback axis. Because of the lack of selectivity, poor antihypertensive effect, and short half-life, the development of Osilodrostat as antihypertensive was halted. As of 2017, Osilodrostat is in phase III and phase II clinical trials for the treatment of pituitary ACTH hypersecretion and Cushing's syndrome, respectively.