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Details

Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Molecular Formula C8H10N5O3.Na.2H2O
Molecular Weight 283.217
Optical Activity NONE
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of Acyclovir Sodium Dihydrate

SMILES

O.O.[Na+].NC1=NC2=C(N=CN2COCCO)C(=O)[N-]1

InChI

InChIKey=PGVPRDWPMPODFC-UHFFFAOYSA-M
InChI=1S/C8H11N5O3.Na.2H2O/c9-8-11-6-5(7(15)12-8)10-3-13(6)4-16-2-1-14;;;/h3,14H,1-2,4H2,(H3,9,11,12,15);;2*1H2/q;+1;;/p-1

HIDE SMILES / InChI

Molecular Formula Na
Molecular Weight 22.9898
Charge 1
Count
Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity NONE

Molecular Formula C8H10N5O3
Molecular Weight 224.1967
Charge -1
Count
Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity NONE

Molecular Formula H2O
Molecular Weight 18.0153
Charge 0
Count
Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity NONE

Acyclovir is a synthetic antiviral nucleoside analogue. A screening program for antiviral drugs begun at Burroughs Wellcome in the 1960s resulted in the discovery of acyclovir in 1974. Preclinical investigation brought the drug to clinical trials in 1977 and the first form of the drug (topical) was available to physicians in 1982. Activity of acyclovir is greatest against herpes 1 and herpes 2, less against varicella zoster, still less against Epstein-Barr, and very little against cytomegalovirus. Acyclovir is an antiviral agent only after it is phosphorylated in infected cells by a viral-induced thymidine kinase. Acyclovir monophosphate is phosphorylated to diphosphate and triphosphate forms by cellular enzymes in the infected host cell where the drug is concentrated. Acyclovir triphosphate inactivates viral deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase.

CNS Activity

Curator's Comment: Valacyclovir hydrochloride is rapidly converted to acyclovir which was detected in CSF after oral administration of valacyclovir.

Approval Year

TargetsConditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Primary
ZOVIRAX

Approved Use

Oral ZOVIRAX® (acyclovir) is indicated for the treatment: Herpes Zoster Infections: ZOVIRAX is indicated for the acute treatment of herpes zoster (shingles). Genital Herpes: ZOVIRAX is indicated for the treatment of initial episodes and the management of recurrent episodes of genital herpes. Chickenpox: ZOVIRAX is indicated for the treatment of chickenpox (varicella). Injectable ZOVIRAX® (acyclovir) is indicated for the treatment: Herpes Simplex Infections in Immunocompromised Patients: ZOVIRAX for Injection is indicated for the treatment of initial and recurrent mucosal and cutaneous herpes simplex (HSV-1 and HSV-2) in immunocompromised patients. Initial Episodes of Herpes Genitalis: ZOVIRAX for Injection is indicated for the treatment of severe initial clinical episodes of herpes genitalis in immunocompetent patients. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: ZOVIRAX for Injection is indicated for the treatment of herpessimplex encephalitis. Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: ZOVIRAX for Injection is indicated for the treatmentof neonatal herpes infections. Varicella-Zoster Infections in Immunocompromised Patients: ZOVIRAX for Injection is indicated for the treatment of varicella-zoster (shingles) infections in immunocompromised patients.

Launch Date

1982
Primary
ZOVIRAX

Approved Use

Oral ZOVIRAX® (acyclovir) is indicated for the treatment: Herpes Zoster Infections: ZOVIRAX is indicated for the acute treatment of herpes zoster (shingles). Genital Herpes: ZOVIRAX is indicated for the treatment of initial episodes and the management of recurrent episodes of genital herpes. Chickenpox: ZOVIRAX is indicated for the treatment of chickenpox (varicella). Injectable ZOVIRAX® (acyclovir) is indicated for the treatment: Herpes Simplex Infections in Immunocompromised Patients: ZOVIRAX for Injection is indicated for the treatment of initial and recurrent mucosal and cutaneous herpes simplex (HSV-1 and HSV-2) in immunocompromised patients. Initial Episodes of Herpes Genitalis: ZOVIRAX for Injection is indicated for the treatment of severe initial clinical episodes of herpes genitalis in immunocompetent patients. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: ZOVIRAX for Injection is indicated for the treatment of herpessimplex encephalitis. Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: ZOVIRAX for Injection is indicated for the treatmentof neonatal herpes infections. Varicella-Zoster Infections in Immunocompromised Patients: ZOVIRAX for Injection is indicated for the treatment of varicella-zoster (shingles) infections in immunocompromised patients.

Launch Date

1982
Primary
VALTREX

Approved Use

INDICATIONS AND USAGE. VALTREX is a nucleoside analogue DNA polymerase inhibitor indicated for: Adult Patients Cold Sores (Herpes Labialis), Genital Herpes, Treatment in immunocompetent patients (initial or recurrent episode), Suppression in immunocompetent or HIV-infected patients, Reduction of transmission, Herpes Zoster. Pediatric Patients Cold Sores (Herpes Labialis), Chickenpox Limitations of Use. The efficacy and safety of VALTREX have not been established in immunocompromised patients other than for the suppression of genital herpes in HIV-infected patients.

Launch Date

2004
Primary
VALTREX

Approved Use

INDICATIONS AND USAGE. VALTREX is a nucleoside analogue DNA polymerase inhibitor indicated for: Adult Patients Cold Sores (Herpes Labialis), Genital Herpes, Treatment in immunocompetent patients (initial or recurrent episode), Suppression in immunocompetent or HIV-infected patients, Reduction of transmission, Herpes Zoster. Pediatric Patients Cold Sores (Herpes Labialis), Chickenpox Limitations of Use. The efficacy and safety of VALTREX have not been established in immunocompromised patients other than for the suppression of genital herpes in HIV-infected patients.

Launch Date

2004
Primary
VALTRE

Approved Use

INDICATIONS AND USAGE. VALTREX is a nucleoside analogue DNA polymerase inhibitor indicated for: Adult Patients Cold Sores (Herpes Labialis), Genital Herpes, Treatment in immunocompetent patients (initial or recurrent episode), Suppression in immunocompetent or HIV-infected patients, Reduction of transmission, Herpes Zoster. Pediatric Patients Cold Sores (Herpes Labialis), Chickenpox Limitations of Use. The efficacy and safety of VALTREX have not been established in immunocompromised patients other than for the suppression of genital herpes in HIV-infected patients.

Launch Date

2004
Cmax

Cmax

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
599.2 ng/mL
400 mg single, oral
dose: 400 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
ACYCLOVIR plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: FASTED
AUC

AUC

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
3015.7 ng × h/mL
400 mg single, oral
dose: 400 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
ACYCLOVIR plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: FASTED
T1/2

T1/2

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
3.9 h
400 mg single, oral
dose: 400 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
ACYCLOVIR plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: FASTED
Funbound

Funbound

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
79%
ACYCLOVIR plasma
Homo sapiens
population: UNKNOWN
age: UNKNOWN
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
Overview

Overview

CYP3A4CYP2C9CYP2D6hERG
Drug as perpetrator​Drug as victim
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
Selection of an oral prodrug (BRL 42810; famciclovir) for the antiherpesvirus agent BRL 39123 [9-(4-hydroxy-3-hydroxymethylbut-l-yl)guanine; penciclovir].
1989 Oct
Hepatic and renal effects of azidothymidine and acyclovir on pregnant rats.
2000
Flow cytometric evaluation of antiviral agents against human herpesvirus 6.
2001
A randomized, double-blind trial of famciclovir versus acyclovir for the treatment of localized dermatomal herpes zoster in immunocompromised patients.
2001
Interventions for herpes simplex virus epithelial keratitis.
2001
Management of neonatal herpes simplex virus infection.
2001
Recent advances in imaging endogenous or transferred gene expression utilizing radionuclide technologies in living subjects: applications to breast cancer.
2001
Cough syncope with herpetic tracheobronchitis.
2001 Apr
Rotavirus encephalopathy: pathogenesis reviewed.
2001 Apr
Heart transplantation and the Batista operation for children with refractory heart failure.
2001 Apr
[Peptide transporter family].
2001 Apr
Acyclovir treatment in 2 patients with benign trigeminal sensory neuropathy.
2001 Apr
Biological characterization of eugeniin as an anti-herpes simplex virus type 1 compound in vitro and in vivo.
2001 Apr
Practice parameter: Steroids, acyclovir, and surgery for Bell's palsy (an evidence-based review): report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.
2001 Apr 10
Hydrophilic interaction chromatography using amino and silica columns for the determination of polar pharmaceuticals and impurities.
2001 Apr 13
Postherpetic neuralgia. Treatment with amitriptyline is cheaper than with aciclovir.
2001 Apr 7
Postherpetic neuralgia. Pathogenesis of postherpetic neuralgia should be determined.
2001 Apr 7
[Photoallergy to Zovirax cream].
2001 Feb
Painful skin erosions and fever in an infant. Eczema herpeticum.
2001 Feb
Prophylaxis of intravenous immunoglobulin and acyclovir in perinatal varicella.
2001 Feb
Pretransplant varicella vaccination is cost-effective in pediatric renal transplantation.
2001 Feb
Anti-herpesvirus activity of (1'S,2'R)-9-[[1',2'-bis(hydroxymethyl)-cycloprop-1'-yl]methyl] x guanine (A-5021) in vitro and in vivo.
2001 Feb
Genetic risks of antiviral nucleoside analogues--a survey.
2001 Feb
Viral etiologies of encephalitis in Thai children.
2001 Feb
Meta-analysis of prophylaxis of CMV disease in solid organ transplantation: is Ganciclovir a superior agent to Acyclovir?
2001 Feb-Mar
Prophylactic antiviral therapy in CMV high-risk liver transplant recipients.
2001 Feb-Mar
Antiviral drugs can inhibit lymphocyte apoptosis induced by cytomegalovirus antigens.
2001 Feb-Mar
Recurrent herpes labialis: efficacy of topical therapy with penciclovir compared with acyclovir (aciclovir).
2001 Jan
Topical treatment of recurrent herpes labialis.
2001 Jan
Aerobic bacterial and fungal infections in peripheral blood stem cell transplants.
2001 Jan
[Valaciclovir in the treatment of initial infection by genital herpes virus: comparative study].
2001 Jan
Epstein-Barr virus-related lymphoproliferative disease complicating childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: no recurrence after unrelated donor bone marrow transplantation.
2001 Jan
Substantially improved in vivo radiosensitization of rat glioma with mutant HSV-TK and acyclovir.
2001 Jan
Successful outcome with a "quintuple approach" of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder.
2001 Jan 15
Selection and characterization of varicella-zoster virus variants resistant to (R)-9-[4-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethy)butyl]guanine.
2001 Jun
[Highly active antiviral and immunosuppressive combination therapy with acyclovir and mycophenolate mofetil following keratoplasty in patients with herpetic eye disease].
2001 Mar
[Benign acute ataxia in an adult with VZV infection].
2001 Mar
A pilot study of treatment of herpes labialis with 1072 nm narrow waveband light.
2001 Mar
A 35-year-old man with recurrent aseptic meningitis.
2001 Mar
Predictors of recurrent herpes simplex virus keratitis. Herpetic Eye Disease Study Group.
2001 Mar
Investigation of aciclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus I infection in a bone marrow transplantation unit: genotyping shows that different strains are involved.
2001 Mar
Predictive modeling and heterogeneity of baseline risk in meta-analysis of individual patient data.
2001 Mar
Long-term high-dose acyclovir and AIDS-related non-Hodgkins lymphoma.
2001 Mar 15
The management of varicella-zoster virus exposure and infection in pregnancy and the newborn period. Australasian Subgroup in Paediatric Infectious Diseases of the Australasian Society for Infectious Diseases.
2001 Mar 19
Neurotoxicity of valacyclovir in peritoneal dialysis: a pharmacokinetic study.
2001 Mar-Apr
Oral recurrent human herpes virus infection and bone marrow transplantation survival.
2001 May
Famciclovir for ophthalmic zoster: a randomised aciclovir controlled study.
2001 May
Chemical stability, enzymatic hydrolysis, and nasal uptake of amino acid ester prodrugs of acyclovir.
2001 May
FV-100 versus valacyclovir for the prevention of post-herpetic neuralgia and the treatment of acute herpes zoster-associated pain: A randomized-controlled trial.
2017 Jul
Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Retinal Necrosis: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.
2017 Mar
Patents

Sample Use Guides

250 mg three times a day for 14 days
Route of Administration: Oral
In uptake studies using valacyclovir, the extraction solution (water/methanol, 50:50) was added to the Caco-2 cells after the uptake period. After standing for 1 h at room temperature, the solutions were centrifuged and the supernatants were filtered. The filtrate was analyzed by highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Valacyclovir showed a marked inhibitory effect (K=440 +/- 29mkM) on [14C]glycylsarcosine uptake via the apical PEPT1.
Substance Class Chemical
Created
by admin
on Sat Dec 16 19:21:03 GMT 2023
Edited
by admin
on Sat Dec 16 19:21:03 GMT 2023
Record UNII
TZT3J8XU9F
Record Status Validated (UNII)
Record Version
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Name Type Language
Acyclovir Sodium Dihydrate
Common Name English
6H-Purin-6-one, 2-amino-1,9-dihydro-9-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]-, monosodium salt, dihydrate
Systematic Name English
6H-Purin-6-one, 2-amino-1,9-dihydro-9-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]-, sodium salt, hydrate (1:1:2)
Systematic Name English
Code System Code Type Description
CAS
261506-45-0
Created by admin on Sat Dec 16 19:21:04 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Sat Dec 16 19:21:04 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
PUBCHEM
23676158
Created by admin on Sat Dec 16 19:21:04 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Sat Dec 16 19:21:04 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
FDA UNII
TZT3J8XU9F
Created by admin on Sat Dec 16 19:21:04 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Sat Dec 16 19:21:04 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
Related Record Type Details
ANHYDROUS->SOLVATE
PARENT -> SALT/SOLVATE
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ACTIVE MOIETY