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The ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula NH4+. Ammonium ions are a waste product of the metabolism of animals. In fish and aquatic invertebrates, it is excreted directly into the water. In mammals, sharks, and amphibians, it is converted in the urea cycle to urea, because urea is less toxic and can be stored more efficiently. In birds, reptiles, and terrestrial snails, metabolic ammonium is converted into uric acid, which is solid and can therefore be excreted with minimal water loss. Ammonium is an important source of nitrogen for many plant species, especially those growing on hypoxic soils. However, it is also toxic to most crop species and is rarely applied as a sole nitrogen source. The ammonium ion (NH4+) in the body plays an important role in the maintenance of acid-base balance. The kidney uses ammonium (NH4+) in place of sodium (Na+) to combine with fixed anions in maintaining acid-base balance, especially as a homeostatic compensatory mechanism in metabolic acidosis. When a loss of hydrogen ions (H+) occurs and serum chloride (Cl–) decreases, sodium is made available for combination with bicarbonate (HCO3–). This creates an excess of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) which leads to a rise in blood pH and a state of metabolic alkalosis. The therapeutic effects of Ammonium (as Ammonium Chloride) depend upon the ability of the kidney to utilize ammonia in the excretion of an excess of fixed anions and the conversion of ammonia to urea by the liver, thereby liberating hydrogen (H+) and chloride (Cl–) ions into the extracellular fluid.

Approval Year

Targets

Targets

Primary TargetPharmacologyConditionPotency
Target ID: CHEMBL1947
Sources: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22324546
Conditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Primary
AMMONIUM CHLORIDE

Approved Use

Unknown

Launch Date

1984
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
A triphosphopyridine nucleotide-specific nitrite reductase from Escherichia coli.
1961 Dec
Effects of glutamate and sulphur containing amino acids on ammonia toxicity and methionine sulphoximine convulsions in mice.
1976 Jun 18
Acute changes of blood ammonia may predict short-term adverse effects of valproic acid.
1984 Nov
Carnitine deficiency and hyperammonemia in children receiving valproic acid with and without other anticonvulsant drugs.
1999
Ammonia as an attractive component of host odour for the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.
1999 Dec
Control of solitary gastric fundal varices and portosystemic encephalopathy accompanying liver cirrhosis by balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO): a case report.
1999 Mar-Apr
Effects of L-arginine on picrotoxin-induced increase in brain ammonia concentrations and convulsions in rats.
1999 Oct
Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by zinc group metal compounds.
1999 Sep
Role of glutamine in cerebral nitrogen metabolism and ammonia neurotoxicity.
2001
Effects of zinc deficiency/zinc supplementation on ammonia metabolism in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis.
2001 Dec
Identification of osmosensitive and ammonia-regulated genes in rat astrocytes by Northern blotting and differential display reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.
2001 Sep
The significance of ammonia/gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) ratio for normality and liver disorders.
2002 Dec
Ammonia prevents glutamate-induced but not low K(+)-induced apoptosis in cerebellar neurons in culture.
2003
[Blood ammonia and transaminases in full term infants suffering from perinatal asphyxia].
2003 May 1-15
Functional identification of ion binding sites at the internal end of the pore in Shaker K+ channels.
2003 May 15
Relationship between tumor necrosis factor-alpha and ammonia in patients with hepatic encephalopathy due to chronic liver failure.
2005
Chronic exposure to ammonia alters the modulation of phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein 2 by metabotropic glutamate receptors 1 and 5 in cerebellar neurons in culture.
2005
Cerebral ammonia uptake and accumulation during prolonged exercise in humans.
2005 Feb 15
Anti-inflammatory effects of inhibiting the amine oxidase activity of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase.
2005 Nov
Role of ammonia and nitric oxide in the decrease in plasma prolactin levels in prehepatic portal hypertensive male rats.
2006
Expression of the ammonia transporter, rh C glycoprotein, in normal and neoplastic human kidney.
2006 Oct
cAMP mediates ammonia-induced programmed cell death in the microglial cell line BV-2.
2007 Apr
Non-convulsive status epilepticus secondary to valproic acid-induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy.
2007 Aug
Encephalopathy and cerebral edema in the setting of acute liver failure: pathogenesis and management.
2008
Ammonia inhibits the C-type natriuretic peptide-dependent cyclic GMP synthesis and calcium accumulation in a rat brain endothelial cell line.
2008 May
Collecting duct-specific Rh C glycoprotein deletion alters basal and acidosis-stimulated renal ammonia excretion.
2009 Jun
In vivo monitoring of extracellular 13N-glutamine derived from blood-borne 13N-ammonia in rat striatum using microdialysis with radio-LC method.
2009 Oct 30
[Ammonia as a cause for hepatic encephalopathy].
2010 Feb
NHE4 is critical for the renal handling of ammonia in rodents.
2010 Jun
Glutamine synthetase in muscle is required for glutamine production during fasting and extrahepatic ammonia detoxification.
2010 Mar 26
Increased Na, K-ATPase alpha2 isoform gene expression by ammonia in astrocytes and in brain in vivo.
2010 Nov
Resveratrol prevents ammonia toxicity in astroglial cells.
2012
High brain ammonia tolerance and down-regulation of Na+:K+:2Cl(-) Cotransporter 1b mRNA and protein expression in the brain of the Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus, exposed to environmental ammonia or terrestrial conditions.
2013
Patents

Sample Use Guides

Solutions for intravenous infusion should not exceed a concentration of 1% to 2% of Ammonium Chloride. Dosage is dependent upon the condition and tolerance of the patient. It is recommended that the contents of one to two vials (100 to 200 mEq) be added to 500 or 1000 mL of isotonic (0.9%) sodium chloride injection. The rate of intravenous infusion should not exceed 5 mL per minute in adults (approximately 3 hours for infusion of 1000 mL). Dosage should be monitored by repeated serum bicarbonate determinations.
Route of Administration: Intravenous
HepG2 is a human HCC line purchased from ATCC and was cultured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) supplemented with 20 % fetal bovine serum (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA). HCC cells were treated with rapamycin (100 mkM) as an autophagy inducer and ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, 10mkM) as an autophagy inhibitor. NH4Cl inhibited rapamycin-induced autophagy in HCC cells.
Substance Class Mixture
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Record UNII
NJ5VT0FKLJ
Record Status Validated (UNII)
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Name Type Language
AMMONIUM CARBONATE
FCC   INCI   MART.   MI   USP-RS   WHO-DD  
INCI  
Official Name English
AMMONIUM CARBONATE [INCI]
Common Name English
AMMONIUM CARBONATE [USP-RS]
Common Name English
AMMONIUM CARBONICUM [HPUS]
Common Name English
AMMONIUM CARBONATE [FCC]
Common Name English
Monoammonium carbonate mixture with ammonium carbamate
Common Name English
Ammonium carbonate [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
CARBONIC ACID, MONOAMMONIUM SALT, MIXT. WITH AMMONIUM CARBAMATE
Common Name English
AMMONIUM CARBONATE CARBAMATE
Common Name English
AMMONIUM CARBONICUM
HPUS  
Common Name English
CARBONIC ACID, AMMONIUM SALT (1:2)
Common Name English
AMMONIUM CARBONATE [MART.]
Common Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
CFR 21 CFR 184.1137
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 17:17:08 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 17:17:08 GMT 2023
EPA PESTICIDE CODE 73501
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 17:17:08 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 17:17:08 GMT 2023
Code System Code Type Description
DAILYMED
NJ5VT0FKLJ
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PRIMARY
MERCK INDEX
m1775
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PRIMARY Merck Index
NCI_THESAURUS
C82281
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PRIMARY
RXCUI
1310190
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PRIMARY RxNorm
FDA UNII
NJ5VT0FKLJ
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 17:17:08 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 17:17:08 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
NCI_THESAURUS
C45678
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CONCEPT Industrial Aid
EVMPD
SUB12875MIG
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PRIMARY
ChEMBL
CHEMBL2105849
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PRIMARY
EPA CompTox
DTXSID40230001
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PRIMARY
CAS
8000-73-5
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PRIMARY
WIKIPEDIA
AMMONIUM CARBONATE
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 17:17:08 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 17:17:08 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
RS_ITEM_NUM
1029942
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 17:17:08 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 17:17:08 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
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Definition References