U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

Details

Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Molecular Formula C3H5O2.Na
Molecular Weight 96.0604
Optical Activity NONE
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of SODIUM PROPIONATE

SMILES

[Na+].CCC([O-])=O

InChI

InChIKey=JXKPEJDQGNYQSM-UHFFFAOYSA-M
InChI=1S/C3H6O2.Na/c1-2-3(4)5;/h2H2,1H3,(H,4,5);/q;+1/p-1

HIDE SMILES / InChI

Molecular Formula C3H5O2
Molecular Weight 73.0706
Charge -1
Count
Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity NONE

Molecular Formula Na
Molecular Weight 22.9898
Charge 1
Count
Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity NONE

Propionic acid (PA), also known as propanoic acid, with chemical formula C3H6O2, is an organic acid used as a food additive and found naturally on the skin and in the gastrointestinal tract. It is a byproduct of fermentation reactions and is also produced industrially from ethylene or ethanol and carbon monoxide. Propionic acid is a fungicide and bactericide, registered to controlfungi and bacteria in stored grains, hay, grain storage areas, poultry litter,and drinking water for livestock and poultry. As a food preservative, propionic acid prevents mold in bread and baked goods, and it is used as a flavoring agent in cheese and other packaged goods. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency considers it safe and therefore, has no limitation on its use. It has been demonstrated that PA lowers fatty acids content in liver and plasma, reduces food intake, exerts immunosuppressive actions and probably improves tissue insulin sensitivity. Thus increased production of PA by the microbiota might be considered beneficial in the context of prevention of obesity and diabetes type 2. The molecular mechanisms by which PA may exert this plethora of physiological effects are slowly being elucidated and include intestinal cyclooxygenase enzyme, the G-protein coupled receptors 41 and 43 and activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, in turn inhibiting the sentinel transcription factor NF-κB and thus increasing the threshold for inflammatory responses in general. Taken together, PA emerges as a major mediator in the link between nutrition, gut microbiota and physiology. The sodium salt of propionic acid was previously approved in Canada as an active ingredient in Amino-Cerv (used to treat inflammation or injury of the cervix).

Approval Year

PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
Inhibition by chromium and cadmium of anaerobic acidogenesis.
2001
[Volatile compounds in air and oral saliva in healthy people, and in periodontitis and gingivitis patients].
2001
PET reversed mismatch in an experimental model of subacute myocardial infarction.
2001 Apr
The effect of season and monensin sodium on the digestive characteristics of autumn and spring pasture fed to sheep.
2001 Apr
Cecal volatile fatty acids and broiler chick susceptibility to Salmonella typhimurium colonization as affected by aflatoxins and T-2 toxin.
2001 Apr
Presynaptic function is altered in snake K+-depolarized motor nerve terminals containing compromised mitochondria.
2001 Apr 1
Uptake mechanism of valproic acid in human placental choriocarcinoma cell line (BeWo).
2001 Apr 13
In vitro conversion of propionate to pyruvate by Salmonella enterica enzymes: 2-methylcitrate dehydratase (PrpD) and aconitase Enzymes catalyze the conversion of 2-methylcitrate to 2-methylisocitrate.
2001 Apr 17
Solution structure of Methylophilus methylotrophus cytochrome c": insights into the structural basis of haem-ligand detachment.
2001 Apr 27
Degradation of natural polyphenols by methanogenic consortia enriched from digested municipal sludge.
2001 Aug
Influence of anaerobic culture acclimation on the degradation kinetics of various substrates.
2001 Aug 5
Effect of the liquid upflow velocity on thermophilic sulphate reduction in acidifying granular sludge reactors.
2001 Feb
Effects of isomalto-oligosaccharides on bowel functions and indicators of nutritional status in constipated elderly men.
2001 Feb
Isolation and preliminary characterization of the medium-chain fatty acid:CoA ligase responsible for activation of short- and medium-chain fatty acids in colonic mucosa from swine.
2001 Feb
Role of type II thioesterases: evidence for removal of short acyl chains produced by aberrant decarboxylation of chain extender units.
2001 Feb
Effects of corn particle size and source on performance of lactating cows fed direct-cut grass-legume forage.
2001 Feb
In vitro metabolism of citalopram by monoamine oxidase B in human blood.
2001 Feb
Cloning and biochemical characterization of Co(2+)-activated bromoperoxidase-esterase (perhydrolase) from Pseudomonas putida IF-3 strain.
2001 Feb 9
Laboratory study on the high-temperature capture of HCl gas by dry-injection of calcium-based sorbents.
2001 Feb-Mar
Short chain fatty acids differentially modulate cellular phenotype and c-myc protein levels in primary human nonmalignant and malignant colonocytes.
2001 Jan
[Extracellular protein of propionic acid bacteria inhibits induced mutation in strains of Salmonella typhimurium].
2001 Jan-Feb
Influence of carbohydrate source and buffer on rumen fermentation characteristics, milk yield, and milk composition in late-lactation Holstein cows.
2001 Jul
Effects of NutriDense and waxy corn hybrids on the rumen fermentation, digestibility and lactational performance of dairy cows.
2001 Jul
Effect of temperature increase from 55 to 65 degrees C on performance and microbial population dynamics of an anaerobic reactor treating cattle manure.
2001 Jul
Identification and quantification of phosphatidylethanolamine-derived glucosylamines and aminoketoses from human erythrocytes--influence of glycation products on lipid peroxidation.
2001 Jul 15
Factors determining the orientation of axially coordinated imidazoles in heme proteins.
2001 Jul 3
Functional and structural response of a cellulose-degrading methanogenic microbial community to multiple aeration stress at two different temperatures.
2001 Jun
The roles of the multiple CheW and CheA homologues in chemotaxis and in chemoreceptor localization in Rhodobacter sphaeroides.
2001 Jun
Effect of an E461G mutation of beta-galactosidase (Escherichia coli, lac Z) on pL rate profiles and solvent deuterium isotope effects.
2001 Jun
Effect of administration with the extract of Gymnema sylvestre R. Br leaves on lipid metabolism in rats.
2001 Jun
Experimental approach to optimize the use of alpha-Amylases in breadmaking.
2001 Jun
Stable performance of anaerobic digestion in the presence of a high concentration of propionic acid.
2001 Jun
Studies of propionate toxicity in Salmonella enterica identify 2-methylcitrate as a potent inhibitor of cell growth.
2001 Jun 1
Snapshots of protein folding. A study on the multiple transition state pathway of cytochrome c(551) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
2001 Jun 22
Dehalogenation of dichloroethene in a contaminated soil: fatty acids and alcohols as electron donors and an apparent requirement for tetrachloroethene.
2001 Mar
Comparative gastrointestinal and plasma cholesterol responses of rats fed on cholesterol-free diets supplemented with guar gum and sodium alginate.
2001 Mar
Activation of Na+/H+ exchanger is associated with hyperinsulinemia in borderline hypertensive rats.
2001 Mar
Production of PHA from starchy wastewater via organic acids.
2001 Mar 30
[Directed modification of the pyrrole ring D in natural chlorins].
2001 Mar-Apr
Preferential utilization of dipeptides by Porphyromonas gingivalis.
2001 May
Study on sludge expansion during treatment of salad oil manufacturing wastewater by yeast.
2001 May
Comamonas nitrativorans sp. nov., a novel denitrifier isolated from a denitrifying reactor treating landfill leachate.
2001 May
The effect of Lactobacillus buchneri and other additives on the fermentation and aerobic stability of barley silage.
2001 May
Carbon-11 acetate as a tracer of myocardial oxygen consumption.
2001 May
Anaerobic codigestion of municipal solid waste and biosolids under various mixing conditions--II: Microbial population dynamics.
2001 May
Thin layer chromatographic determination of organic acids for rapid identification of bifidobacteria at genus level.
2001 May
Desensitization of ileal vagal receptors by short-chain fatty acids in pigs.
2001 May
Indolinone tyrosine kinase inhibitors block Kit activation and growth of small cell lung cancer cells.
2001 May 1
One-pot, catalytic, asymmetric synthesis of polypropionates.
2001 May 17
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis pks2 gene encodes the synthase for the hepta- and octamethyl-branched fatty acids required for sulfolipid synthesis.
2001 May 18
Patents

Sample Use Guides

The maximum safe dietary level of propionic acid for poultry is 10 g/kg complete feed and for pigs 30 g/kg complete feed.
Route of Administration: Oral
Propionic acid concentrations equal to or more than 3 mM showed a remarkable high inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation, whereas 2 mM produced only a mild reduction in lymphocyte proliferation. 3 mM PA or higher inhibited the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, resistin, by human adipose tissue.
Substance Class Chemical
Created
by admin
on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023
Edited
by admin
on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023
Record UNII
DK6Y9P42IN
Record Status Validated (UNII)
Record Version
  • Download
Name Type Language
SODIUM PROPIONATE
II   NF   USP-RS   VANDF   WHO-DD  
Systematic Name English
SODIUM PROPIONATE ANHYDROUS
HSDB  
Preferred Name English
SODIUM PROPIONATE ANHYDROUS [HSDB]
Common Name English
SODIUM PROPIONATE [II]
Common Name English
Sodium propionate [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
SODIUM PROPIONATE [MART.]
Common Name English
SODIUM PROPIONATE [EP MONOGRAPH]
Common Name English
PROPIONIC ACID, SODIUM SALT
Common Name English
INS-281
Code English
391O0PO49R
Code English
INS NO.281
Code English
PROPANOIC ACID, SODIUM SALT (1:1)
Common Name English
SODIUM PROPIONATE [VANDF]
Common Name English
SODIUM PROPIONATE [NF]
Common Name English
SODIUM PROPANOATE
Systematic Name English
ANHYDROUS SODIUM PROPIONATE [MART.]
Common Name English
SODIUM PROPIONATE [FCC]
Common Name English
PROPANOIC ACID, SODIUM SALT
Common Name English
E-281
Code English
SODIUM PROPIONATE [INCI]
Common Name English
SODIUM PROPIONATE [USP-RS]
Common Name English
ANHYDROUS SODIUM PROPIONATE
MART.  
Common Name English
SODIUM PROPIONATE [MI]
Common Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
CODEX ALIMENTARIUS (GSFA) INS-281
Created by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023
DSLD 3830 (Number of products:2)
Created by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023
EPA PESTICIDE CODE 77703
Created by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023
CFR 21 CFR 184.1784
Created by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023
JECFA EVALUATION INS-281
Created by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023
WHO-VATC QS01AX10
Created by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023
WHO-ATC S01AX10
Created by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023
WHO-VATC QA16QA02
Created by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023
Code System Code Type Description
SMS_ID
100000091905
Created by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
FDA UNII
DK6Y9P42IN
Created by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB15322MIG
Created by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
PUBCHEM
2723816
Created by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
NCI_THESAURUS
C45678
Created by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023
CONCEPT Industrial Aid
ECHA (EC/EINECS)
205-290-4
Created by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
DRUG CENTRAL
4796
Created by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
RXCUI
1432980
Created by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023
PRIMARY RxNorm
HSDB
766
Created by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
EPA CompTox
DTXSID7021996
Created by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
DRUG BANK
DBSALT002690
Created by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
NCI_THESAURUS
C84167
Created by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
WIKIPEDIA
SODIUM PROPIONATE
Created by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
RS_ITEM_NUM
1614603
Created by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
DAILYMED
DK6Y9P42IN
Created by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
CAS
137-40-6
Created by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
PUBCHEM
23663426
Created by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
MERCK INDEX
m10068
Created by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023
PRIMARY Merck Index
RXCUI
56513
Created by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023
PRIMARY RxNorm
ChEMBL
CHEMBL500826
Created by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Sat Dec 16 04:45:14 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
Related Record Type Details
SOLVATE->ANHYDROUS
PARENT -> SALT/SOLVATE
Related Record Type Details
ACTIVE MOIETY