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Details

Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Molecular Formula C9H10Cl2N4.ClH
Molecular Weight 281.569
Optical Activity NONE
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of APRACLONIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE

SMILES

Cl.NC1=CC(Cl)=C(NC2=NCCN2)C(Cl)=C1

InChI

InChIKey=OTQYGBJVDRBCHC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI=1S/C9H10Cl2N4.ClH/c10-6-3-5(12)4-7(11)8(6)15-9-13-1-2-14-9;/h3-4H,1-2,12H2,(H2,13,14,15);1H

HIDE SMILES / InChI

Molecular Formula ClH
Molecular Weight 36.461
Charge 0
Count
Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity NONE

Molecular Formula C9H10Cl2N4
Molecular Weight 245.109
Charge 0
Count
Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity NONE

Description
Curator's Comment: description was created based on several sources, including: https://www.drugs.com/ppa/apraclonidine.html | https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=dc7d3a9f-c0b9-411c-9c62-0a14f1718b00

Apraclonidine (IOPIDINE) is an α2-adrenergic receptor agonist and a weak α1-adrenergic receptor agonist. It is used for the prevention and treatment of postsurgical intraocular pressure elevation. The following adverse events, occurring in less than 2% of patients, were reported in association with the use of IOPIDINE Ophthalmic Solution in laser surgery: ocular injection, upper lid elevation, irregular heart rate, nasal decongestion, ocular inflammation, conjunctival blanching, and mydriasis. Interactions with other agents have not been investigated.

Approval Year

TargetsConditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Preventing
IOPIDINE

Approved Use

Apraclonidine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution) is indicated to control or prevent postsurgical elevations in intraocular pressure that occur in patients after argon laser trabeculplasty, argon laser iridotomy or Nd:YAG posterior capsulotomy.

Launch Date

5.6782081E11
Cmax

Cmax

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
0.9 ng/mL
1 drop 3 times / day multiple, ocular
dose: 1 drop
route of administration: Ocular
experiment type: MULTIPLE
co-administered:
APRACLONIDINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
T1/2

T1/2

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
8 h
1 drop 3 times / day multiple, ocular
dose: 1 drop
route of administration: Ocular
experiment type: MULTIPLE
co-administered:
APRACLONIDINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
Funbound

Funbound

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
74.5%
unknown, topical
APRACLONIDINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: UNKNOWN
age: UNKNOWN
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
Doses

Doses

DosePopulationAdverse events​
0.5 % 2 times / day multiple, ophthalmic
Recommended
Dose: 0.5 %, 2 times / day
Route: ophthalmic
Route: multiple
Dose: 0.5 %, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: intraocular pressure
Age Group: adult
Sex: unknown
Sources:
Disc. AE: Allergic reaction...
AEs leading to
discontinuation/dose reduction:
Allergic reaction (12.9%)
Sources:
AEs

AEs

AESignificanceDosePopulation
Allergic reaction 12.9%
Disc. AE
0.5 % 2 times / day multiple, ophthalmic
Recommended
Dose: 0.5 %, 2 times / day
Route: ophthalmic
Route: multiple
Dose: 0.5 %, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: intraocular pressure
Age Group: adult
Sex: unknown
Sources:
Overview

Overview

CYP3A4CYP2C9CYP2D6hERG

OverviewOther

Other InhibitorOther SubstrateOther Inducer

Drug as victim

Drug as victim

TargetModalityActivityMetaboliteClinical evidence
yes
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
Reformulation and drop size of apraclonidine hydrochloride.
1992 Feb 15
Medical therapy cost considerations for glaucoma.
2003 Jul
The effects of antiglaucoma and systemic medications on ocular blood flow.
2003 Nov
Managing adverse events associated with botulinum toxin type A: a focus on cosmetic procedures.
2005
Apraclonidine and LASIK.
2005 Dec
Topical apraclonidine in the diagnosis of suspected Horner syndrome.
2005 Jun
Are we ready to replace cocaine with apraclonidine in the pharmacologic diagnosis of Horner syndrome?
2005 Jun
Comparing brimonidine 0.2% to apraclonidine 1.0% in the prevention of intraocular pressure elevation and their pupillary effects following laser peripheral iridotomy.
2005 Mar-Apr
The sensitivity and specificity of 0.5% apraclonidine in the diagnosis of oculosympathetic paresis.
2005 Nov
Effect of apraclonidine versus dorzolamide on intraocular pressure after phacoemulsification.
2005 Nov-Dec
Pharmacological testing of anisocoria.
2005 Oct
More than just an ocular solution.
2005 Oct
Comparative efficacy of acetazolamide and apraclonidine in the control of intraocular pressure following phacoemulsification.
2006
Reduction of anterior-segment vascularity with preoperative topical apraclonidine 1%.
2006 Apr
Topical apraclonidine testing of pupillary sympathetic denervation in diabetic patients.
2006 Dec
Corneal thickness- and age-related biomechanical properties of the cornea measured with the ocular response analyzer.
2006 Dec
Effect of 0.5% apraclonidine on ptosis in Horner syndrome.
2006 Jan-Feb
Antagonism by imidazoline-type drugs of muscarinic and other receptors in the guinea-pig ileum.
2006 Jul
The management of glaucoma and intraocular hypertension: current approaches and recent advances.
2006 Jun
Comparing efficacies of 0.5% apraclonidine with 4% cocaine in the diagnosis of horner syndrome in pediatric patients.
2006 Jun
The effect of topical apraclonidine on subconjunctival hemorrhage and flap adherence in LASIK patients.
2006 Jun
Topical apraclonidine testing discloses pupillary sympathetic denervation in diabetic patients.
2006 Mar
Efficacy of apraclonidine 0.5% in the diagnosis of Horner syndrome in pediatric patients under low or high illumination.
2006 Sep
Brinzolamide 1% versus apraclonidine 0.5% to prevent intraocular pressure elevation after neodymium:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy.
2006 Sep
Congenital Horner's syndrome and the usefulness of the apraclonidine test in its diagnosis.
2006 Sep
Genomic and functional conservation of sedative-hypnotic targets in the zebrafish.
2007 Apr
Apraclonidine in the diagnosis of Horner's syndrome.
2007 Jul
Adverse effects of apraclonidine used in the diagnosis of Horner syndrome in infants.
2007 Jun
Pharmacologic reversal of Horner's syndrome-related ptosis with apraclonidine.
2007 May
The acute morphologic changes that occur at the optic nerve head induced by medical reduction of intraocular pressure.
2007 Sep
Horner's syndrome, Pseudo-Horner's syndrome, and simple anisocoria.
2007 Sep
Congenital or acquired Horner's?
2007 Sep-Oct
The pupil.
2008 Feb
Medical management of primary open-angle glaucoma: Best practices associated with enhanced patient compliance and persistency.
2008 Feb 2
Use of 0.5% apraclonidine solution in evaluation of blepharoptosis.
2008 Jul-Aug
Central alpha-2 adrenergic eye drops: case series of 3 pediatric systemic poisonings.
2008 Mar
Effects of central corneal thickness on the efficacy of topical ocular hypotensive medications.
2008 Mar
Differences in the histopathology and matrix metalloproteinase expression in Tenon's tissue of primary open-angle glaucoma and primary angle-closure glaucoma.
2008 Mar
Acupuncture treatment for idiopathic Horner's syndrome in a dog.
2008 Mar
False negative apraclonidine test in two patients with Horner syndrome.
2008 May
Recurrent serous macular detachment after topical ocular hypotensive medication.
2008 Nov
Fixed combination of topical brimonidine 0.2% and timolol 0.5% for glaucoma and uncontrolled intraocular pressure.
2008 Sep
Topical apraclonidine to diagnose Bernard-Horner syndrome.
2009
Oral versus topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors in ocular hypertension after scleral tunnel cataract surgery.
2009
Clinical efficacy and neuroprotective effects of brimonidine in the management of glaucoma and ocular hypertension.
2009
Possible effect of systemic sympathicolytic drugs on apraclonidine test.
2009 Aug
[Unilateral allergic contact dermatitis of the eyelid caused by Iopimax].
2009 Dec
Nd: YAG capsulotomy for posterior capsule opacification after combined clear corneal phacoemulsification and vitrectomy.
2009 Feb
False-negative apraclonidine testing in acute Horner syndrome.
2009 Feb
Exposure to topical apraclonidine in children with glaucoma.
2009 Jun-Jul
Patents

Sample Use Guides

One drop of Ophthalmic Solution should be instilled in the scheduled operative eye one hour before initiating anterior segment laser surgery and a second drop should be instilled to the same eye immediately upon completion of the laser surgical procedure. Use a separate container for each single-drop dose and discard each container after use.
Route of Administration: Topical
The alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists apraclonidine induced vasoconstriction in the porcine ciliary artery with the potency EC(50) equal to 13.0 nM.
Substance Class Chemical
Created
by admin
on Wed Jul 05 22:56:38 UTC 2023
Edited
by admin
on Wed Jul 05 22:56:38 UTC 2023
Record UNII
D2VW67N38H
Record Status Validated (UNII)
Record Version
  • Download
Name Type Language
APRACLONIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE
JAN   MART.   MI   ORANGE BOOK   USAN   USP   USP-RS   VANDF   WHO-DD  
USAN  
Official Name English
APRACLONIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE [USP MONOGRAPH]
Common Name English
1,4-BENZENEDIAMINE, 2,6-DICHLORO-N(SUP 1)-2-IMIDAZOLIDINYLIDENE-, MONOHYDROCHLORIDE
Common Name English
AL02145
Code English
IOPIDINE
Brand Name English
APRACLONIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE [ORANGE BOOK]
Common Name English
APRACLONIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE [MART.]
Common Name English
APRACLONIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE [USP IMPURITY]
Common Name English
APRACLONIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE [MI]
Common Name English
Apraclonidine hydrochloride [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
APRACLONIDINE HCL
Common Name English
AL-02145
Code English
APRACLONIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE [USAN]
Common Name English
APRACLONIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE [JAN]
Common Name English
APRACLONIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE [USP-RS]
Common Name English
2-((4-AMINO-2,6-DICHLOROPHENYL)IMINO) IMIDAZOLIDINE MONOHYDROCHLORIDE
Systematic Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
NCI_THESAURUS C29709
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:56:38 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:56:38 UTC 2023
Code System Code Type Description
EVMPD
SUB12926MIG
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:56:38 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:56:38 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
PUBCHEM
51763
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:56:38 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:56:38 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
MERCK INDEX
M2008
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:56:38 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:56:38 UTC 2023
PRIMARY Merck Index
RXCUI
91350
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:56:38 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:56:38 UTC 2023
PRIMARY RxNorm
ChEMBL
CHEMBL647
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:56:38 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:56:38 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
DRUG BANK
DBSALT000819
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:56:38 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:56:38 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
RS_ITEM_NUM
1041609
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:56:38 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:56:38 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
DAILYMED
D2VW67N38H
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:56:38 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:56:38 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
SMS_ID
100000077408
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:56:38 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:56:38 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
EPA CompTox
DTXSID6045749
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:56:38 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:56:38 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
FDA UNII
D2VW67N38H
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:56:38 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:56:38 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
USAN
Z-50
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:56:38 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:56:38 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
CHEBI
2789
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:56:38 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:56:38 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
NCI_THESAURUS
C47401
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:56:38 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:56:38 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
CAS
73218-79-8
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:56:38 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:56:38 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
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