U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

Details

Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Molecular Formula N2
Molecular Weight 28.0134
Optical Activity NONE
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of NITROGEN

SMILES

N#N

InChI

InChIKey=IJGRMHOSHXDMSA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI=1S/N2/c1-2

HIDE SMILES / InChI
Elemental nitrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless and mostly inert diatomic gas at standard conditions, constituting 78% by volume of Earth's atmosphere. Nitrogen occurs in all living organisms. It is a constituent element of amino acids and therefore of proteins and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). Nitrogen is found in the chemical structure of almost all neurotransmitters and is a key component of alkaloids. Specific bacteria (e. g. Rhizobium trifolium) possess nitrogenase enzymes which can fix atmospheric nitrogen into a form (ammonium ion) which is chemically useful to higher organisms. Animals use nitrogen-containing amino acids from plant sources, as starting materials for all nitrogen-compound animal biochemistry, including the manufacture of proteins and nucleic acids. Animal metabolism of NO (nitric oxide) results in production of nitrite. Animal metabolism of nitrogen in proteins generally results in excretion of urea, while animal metabolism of nucleic acids results in excretion of urea and uric acid. The characteristic odor of animal flesh decay is caused by nitrogen-containing long-chain amines, such as putrescine and cadaverine. Decay of organisms and their waste products may produce small amounts of nitrate, but most decay eventually returns nitrogen content to the atmosphere, as molecular nitrogen. The circulation of nitrogen from the atmosphere through organics and then back to the atmosphere is commonly referred to as the nitrogen cycle. Nitrogen can be measured in urine with the Kjeldahl method or by spectrophotometric methods (enzymic tests). Total urinary nitrogen is calculated based on urea urinary nitrogen quantified with these methods. Liquid nitrogen (E941) is widely used in food industry as a freezing agent and as a protection against the impact of microorganisms. Nitrogen (E941) extends the period of validity of food and maintains its nutrients and is also used for packing products. In other fields of industry, nitrogen (E941) is useful in suppressing the combustion processes and in creating protective environment in order to avoid oxidation. Medical nitrogen has various medical uses, especially in liquid form when it provides temperatures as low as -196° C. Applications of medical nitrogen in the healthcare environment may include the following: * In cryopreservation for the long-term preservation of blood, blood components, other cells, body fluids or tissue samples. * In cryosurgery for minor surgical procedures in dermatology. * As a component in many gas mixtures. * As a displacement medium for sterile equipment, a non-oxidising displacement medium in pharmaceutical vials and as a propellant in pressurised aerosol dispensers. * As a source of pneumatic pressure to power gas-operated medical devices. * As a coolant for carbon dioxide surgical lasers.

CNS Activity

Curator's Comment:: As early as 1826, divers diving to great depths noted that descent often resulted in a phenomenon of intoxication and euphoria. In 1935, Albert Behnke discovered nitrogen as the cause of this clinical syndrome, a condition now known as nitrogen narcosis. Nitrogen narcosis consists of the development of euphoria, a false sense of security, and impaired judgment upon underwater descent using compressed air below 3-4 atmospheres (99 to 132 feet). At greater depths, symptoms can progress to loss of consciousness.

Approval Year

Conditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Palliative
AIRAPY

Approved Use

In hospitals, medicinal air is used mainly for ventilation and aerosol therapy and during anaesthesia: - When treating respiratory diseases such as asthma and COPD, an effective way of delivering drug treatment is to direct it straight to the lungs by inhalation. Nebulisers are used to administer inhaled medication to patients who cannot use conventional inhalers. Medicinal air may be used to drive the drug treatment air to the nebuliser where liquid medication is converted to a mist that can be inhaled. - Medicinal air is used as a carrier gas for narcotic substances in inhalational anaesthesia. It may also be used with nitric oxide as a substitute for supplemental oxygen to reduce the high concentration of oxygen exposure. - Some patients are dependent on a reliable, high quality supply of medicinal air to protect their delicate and sensitive respiratory systems.
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
Cardiac rate and rhythm in mice affected by haloalkane propellants.
1972 Nov 13
The nitrogen-fixing complex of bacteria.
1975 Mar 31
Nitrous oxide reductase from denitrifying Pseudomonas perfectomarina. Purification and properties of a novel multicopper enzyme.
1985 Dec 16
Skin debris and micro-organisms on the periwound skin of pressure ulcers and the influence of periwound cleansing on microbial flora.
2005 Jan
Dopa oxidase activity in the hair, skin and ocular melanocytes is increased in the presence of stressed fibroblasts.
2005 May
Molecular mechanism of anaerobic ammonium oxidation.
2011 Oct 2
Effects of nitrogen-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes compared to pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes on human small airway epithelial cells.
2015 Jul 3
Patents

Sample Use Guides

In Vitro Use Guide
Unknown
Name Type Language
NITROGEN
EP   FCC   HSDB   II   INCI   MART.   MI   VANDF   WHO-DD  
INCI  
Official Name English
NITROGEN [MI]
Common Name English
NITROGEN [II]
Common Name English
E-941
Code English
NITROGEN [FCC]
Common Name English
NITROGEN [EP MONOGRAPH]
Common Name English
NITROGEN [GREEN BOOK]
Common Name English
NITROGEN GAS
Common Name English
NITROGEN [INCI]
Common Name English
NITROGEN [VANDF]
Common Name English
INS-941
Code English
INS NO.941
Code English
NITROGEN [MART.]
Common Name English
NITROGEN [HSDB]
Common Name English
DINITROGEN
Common Name English
MOLECULAR NITROGEN
Common Name English
NITROGEN (N2)
Common Name English
NITROGEN [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
LOINC 18246-9
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
LOINC 18247-7
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
LOINC 53142-6
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
LOINC 2659-1
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
CODEX ALIMENTARIUS (GSFA) INS-941
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
LOINC 2658-3
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
LOINC 79403-2
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
LOINC 54352-0
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
LOINC 50888-7
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
DSLD 1239 (Number of products:16)
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
LOINC 2664-1
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
LOINC 16141-4
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
LOINC 69424-0
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
WHO-VATC QV03AN04
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
JECFA EVALUATION INS-941
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
CFR 21 CFR 184.1540
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
LOINC 2660-9
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
LOINC 2665-8
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
EPA PESTICIDE CODE 128934
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
LOINC 40388-1
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
WHO-ATC V03AN04
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
LOINC 77357-2
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
LOINC 50889-5
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
LOINC 77358-0
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
LOINC 59385-5
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
NCI_THESAURUS C1940
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
LOINC 47712-5
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
Code System Code Type Description
CAS
7727-37-9
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
JECFA MONOGRAPH
INS-941
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
PUBCHEM
947
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
ChEMBL
CHEMBL142438
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
FDA UNII
N762921K75
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
ECHA (EC/EINECS)
231-783-9
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
RXCUI
7456
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
PRIMARY RxNorm
NCI_THESAURUS
C61863
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
MERCK INDEX
M7958
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
PRIMARY Merck Index
EVMPD
SUB12541MIG
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
DRUG BANK
DB09152
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
DRUG CENTRAL
4251
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
MESH
D009584
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:14:15 UTC 2021
PRIMARY