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Details

Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Molecular Formula Se
Molecular Weight 78.9594
Optical Activity NONE
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of SELENIUM

SMILES

[Se]

InChI

InChIKey=SPVXKVOXSXTJOY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI=1S/H2Se/h1H2

HIDE SMILES / InChI
Selenium (Se) is mineral that is found in soil and occurs naturally in certain foods (such as whole grains, Brazil nuts, sunflower seeds, and seafood). Selenium, which is nutritionally essential for humans, is a constituent of more than two dozen selenoproteins that play critical roles in reproduction, thyroid hormone metabolism, DNA synthesis, and protection from oxidative damage and infection. Selenium is used to treat or prevent selenium deficiency. Selenium deficiency produces biochemical changes that might predispose people who experience additional stresses to develop certain illnesses. For example, selenium deficiency in combination with a second stress (possibly a viral infection) leads to Keshan disease, a cardiomyopathy that occurred in parts of China prior to a government-sponsored selenium supplementation program that began in the 1970s. Before the Chinese government supplementation program, adults in the Keshan disease areas had average selenium intakes of no more than 11 mcg/day; intakes of at least 20 mcg/day protect adults from Keshan disease. Selenium has been used in alternative medicine as an aid to treat Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and to treat high cholesterol. Selenium is an important enzyme in the prevention of cellular damage by free radicals and reactive oxygen species. Selenium is first metabolized to selenophosphate and selenocysteine. Selenium incorporation is genetically encoded through the RNA sequence UGA. This sequence is recognized by RNA ste loop structures called selenocysteine inserting sequences (SECIS). These structures require the binding of SECIS binding proteins (SBP-2) to recognize selenocystiene. The specialized tRNA is first bound to a serine residue which is then enzymatically processed to a selylcysteyl-tRNA by selenocystiene sythase using selenophosphate as a selenium donor. Other unidentified proteins are required as part of the binding of this tRNA to the ribosome. Numerous studies in animal models and more recent studies in humans have demonstrated cancer chemopreventive effects with Se. There is extensive evidence that monomethylated forms of Se are critical metabolites for chemopreventive effects of Se. Induction of apoptosis in transformed cells is an important chemopreventive mechanism. Apoptosis can be triggered by micromolar levels of monomethylated forms of Se independent of DNA damage and in cells having a null p53 phenotype. Cell cycle protein kinase cdk2 and protein kinase C are strongly inhibited by various forms of Se. Inhibitory mechanisms involving modification of cysteine residues in proteins by Se have been proposed that involve formation of Se adducts of the selenotrisulfide (S-Se-S) or selenenylsulfide (S-Se) type or catalysis of disulfide formation. Selenium may facilitate reactions of protein cysteine residues by the transient formation of more reactive S-Se intermediates. A novel chemopreventive mechanism is proposed involving Se catalysis of reversible cysteine/disulfide transformations that occur in a number of redox-regulated proteins, including transcription factors. A time-limited activation mechanism for such proteins, with deactivation facilitated by Se, would allow normalization of critical cellular processes in the early stages of transformation. Randomized controlled trials of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention have yielded conflicting results. In 2003, the FDA allowed a qualified health claim on foods and dietary supplements containing selenium to state that while “some scientific evidence suggests that consumption of selenium may reduce the risk of certain forms of cancer… FDA has determined that this evidence is limited and not conclusive”. Selenium is available in multivitamin/multimineral supplements and as a stand-alone supplement, often in the forms of selenomethionine or of selenium-enriched yeast (grown in a high-selenium medium) or as sodium selenite or sodium selenate.

Approval Year

PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
Cephaloridine nephrotoxicity is potentiated by selenium deficiency but not copper deficiency in rats.
1992 Jun
Osteopontin is a potential target gene in mouse mammary cancer chemoprevention by Se-methylselenocysteine.
2004
High dietary intake of sodium selenite induces oxidative DNA damage in rat liver.
2004
Selenium diet-supplementation improves cocaine-induced myocardial oxidative stress and prevents cardiac dysfunction in rats.
2004 Aug
Interaction of selenium compounds with zinc finger proteins involved in DNA repair.
2004 Aug
Cross-species global and subset gene expression profiling identifies genes involved in prostate cancer response to selenium.
2004 Aug 20
Overexpression of enzymatically active human cytosolic and mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase in HEK-293 cells. Effect on cell growth and differentiation.
2004 Dec 24
GPx-1 modulates Akt and P70S6K phosphorylation and Gadd45 levels in MCF-7 cells.
2004 Jul 15
Antagonistic effect of scutellarin on the toxicity of selenium in rat livers.
2004 Jun
Growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis in mesothelioma cells by selenium and dependence on selenoprotein SEP15 genotype.
2004 Jun 24
The relationship between trace elements and cardiac markers in acute coronary syndromes.
2005
Epithelium-specific glutathione peroxidase, Gpx2, is involved in the prevention of intestinal inflammation in selenium-deficient mice.
2005 Apr
Lethal cardiomyopathy in epidermolysis bullosa associated with amitriptyline.
2005 Aug
Selenoprotein deficiency and high levels of selenium compounds can effectively inhibit hepatocarcinogenesis in transgenic mice.
2005 Dec 1
Effects of dietary selenium on post-ischemic expression of antioxidant mRNA.
2005 Feb
[Regulatory effects of micronutrient complex on the expression of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in diabetic C57BL mice].
2005 Jan
Type 2 iodothyronine selenodeiodinase is expressed throughout the mouse skeleton and in the MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblastic cell line during differentiation.
2005 Jan
Effects of Se-depletion on glutathione peroxidase and selenoprotein W gene expression in the colon.
2005 Jan 31
Selenium impacts on razorback sucker, Colorado: Colorado River III. Larvae.
2005 Jun
Hepatically derived selenoprotein P is a key factor for kidney but not for brain selenium supply.
2005 Mar 1
Sulforaphane, erucin, and iberin up-regulate thioredoxin reductase 1 expression in human MCF-7 cells.
2005 Mar 9
Effect of selenium on expression of selenoproteins in mouse fibrosarcoma cells.
2005 May
Selenoprotein W as molecular target of methylmercury in human neuronal cells is down-regulated by GSH depletion.
2005 May 20
A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial evaluating the effects of vitamin E and selenium on arsenic-induced skin lesions in Bangladesh.
2005 Oct
[Effect of selenium on expression of P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in diabetic endothelial cells].
2005 Sep
Effect of selenium on Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.
2006
A nutritional supplement formula for influenza A (H5N1) infection in humans.
2006
Mechanisms of selenium down-regulation of androgen receptor signaling in prostate cancer.
2006 Apr
T-2 toxin induces apoptosis, and selenium partly blocks, T-2 toxin induced apoptosis in chondrocytes through modulation of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio.
2006 Apr
Effect of selenium supplementation on activity and mRNA expression of type 1 deiodinase in mice with excessive iodine intake.
2006 Aug
Synergistic regulation of endothelial tight junctions by antioxidant (Se) and polyunsaturated lipid (GLA) via Claudin-5 modulation.
2006 Aug 1
Micronutrients in African-Americans with decompensated and compensated heart failure.
2006 Dec
Deletion of selenoprotein P upregulates urinary selenium excretion and depresses whole-body selenium content.
2006 Dec
Selenium-dependent pre- and posttranscriptional mechanisms are responsible for sexual dimorphic expression of selenoproteins in murine tissues.
2006 Dec
Thioredoxin reductase regulates the induction of haem oxygenase-1 expression in aortic endothelial cells.
2006 Feb 15
[Effects of selenium on expression of TERT, c-Myc and p53 induced by cadmium in rat liver].
2006 Jan
Attenuation of LDL receptor gene expression by selenium deficiency during hypercholesterolemia.
2006 Jan
Functional characteristics of NaS2, a placenta-specific Na+-coupled transporter for sulfate and oxyanions of the micronutrients selenium and chromium.
2006 Jun-Jul
Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in children on maintenance dialysis.
2006 May
Modulation of hypercholesterolemia-induced alterations in apolipoprotein B and HMG-CoA reductase expression by selenium supplementation.
2006 May 15
Selenium binding protein 1 in ovarian cancer.
2006 May 15
Hypercholesterolemia and LDL receptor mRNA expression: modulation by selenium supplementation.
2006 Oct
Arsenic-induced changes in optic tectal histoarchitecture and acetylcholinesterase-acetylcholine profile in Channa punctatus: amelioration by selenium.
2006 Sep
Effect of selenium intake and fetal age on mRNA levels of two selenoproteins in porcine fetal and maternal liver.
2006 Sep
Paraquat-induced oxidative stress and dysfunction of cellular redox systems including antioxidative defense enzymes glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase.
2007 Apr
Occurrence of selenoprotein enzyme activities and mRNA in bovine mammary tissue.
2007 Feb
Selenium and sulforaphane modify the expression of selenoenzymes in the human endothelial cell line EAhy926 and protect cells from oxidative damage.
2007 Feb
Effect of selenium-deficient diet on tubular epithelium in normal rats.
2007 Feb
Effects of selenium supplementation on expression of glutathione peroxidase isoforms in cultured human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines.
2007 Jan
Differential regulation of expression of cytosolic and mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase in rat liver and kidney.
2007 Mar 15
Patents

Sample Use Guides

In Vivo Use Guide
Dosing: Adult Parenteral nutrition additive (Vanek 2012): IV: 60 to 100 mcg/day Deficiency from prolonged parenteral nutrition: IV: 100 mcg/day Dosing: Pediatric Adequate intake (AI) (IOM, 2000): Oral: 1 to 6 months: 15 mcg/day 7 to 12 months: 20 mcg/day Recommended daily allowance (RDA) (IOM, 2000): Oral: 1 to 3 years: 20 mcg/day 4 to 8 years: 30 mcg/day 9 to 13 years 40 mcg/day 14 to 18 years: 55 mcg/day Parenteral nutrition, maintenance requirement: IV: Infants, Children, and Adolescents: Manufacturer's labeling: 3 mcg/kg/day; maximum daily dose: 40 mcg/day ASPEN recommendations: Age-directed dosing (Vanek, 2012): Infants, Children, and Adolescents: 1 to 3 mcg/kg/day; maximum daily dose: 100 mcg/day Weight-directed dosing (ASPEN Pediatric Nutrition Support Core Curriculum [Corkins, 2010]; Mirtallo, 2004): Infants <10 kg: 2 mcg/kg/day Children 10 to 40 kg: 1 to 2 mcg/kg/day; maximum daily dose: 60 mcg/day Adolescents >40 kg: 40 to 60 mcg/day Dietary Considerations Dietary adequate intake (AI): Note: Breast milk, formula, and food should be the only sources of selenium for infants (NIH 2016) 1 to 6 months: 15 mcg/day 7 to 12 months: 20 mcg/day Dietary recommended daily allowance (RDA) (IOM 2000): 1 to 3 years: 20 mcg/day 4 to 8 years: 30 mcg/day 9 to 13 years: 40 mcg/day ≥14 years: 55 mcg/day Pregnancy: 60 mcg/day Lactation: 70 mcg/day
Route of Administration: Other
Name Type Language
SELENIUM
MART.   MI   VANDF   WHO-DD  
Systematic Name English
SELENIUM [MI]
Common Name English
SELENIUM [VANDF]
Common Name English
SELENIUM [MART.]
Common Name English
SELENIUM, ELEMENTAL [HSDB]
Common Name English
B-TRAXIM SE
Brand Name English
SELENIUM METALLICUM [HPUS]
Common Name English
SELENIUM METALLICUM
HPUS  
Common Name English
SELENIUM ELEMENTAL
Common Name English
SE
Code English
SELENIUM, ELEMENTAL
HSDB  
Common Name English
SELENIUM [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
C.I. 77805
Common Name English
SELENIUM AND SELENIUM COMPOUNDS [IARC]
Common Name English
CI 77805
Common Name English
SELSAF 2000
Brand Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
LOINC 78696-2
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021
EPA PESTICIDE CODE 72001
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021
DSLD 147 (Number of products:6361)
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021
WHO-VATC QA12CE99
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021
CFR 21 CFR 520.2100
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021
NCI_THESAURUS C1940
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021
CFR 21 CFR 522.2100
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021
WHO-ATC D11AC03
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021
Code System Code Type Description
HSDB
4493
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
ECHA (EC/EINECS)
231-957-4
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
RXCUI
9641
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY RxNorm
FDA UNII
H6241UJ22B
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
CAS
7782-49-2
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EPA CompTox
7782-49-2
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
NCI_THESAURUS
C825
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
PUBCHEM
6326970
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB130911
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021
ALTERNATIVE
EVMPD
SUB15210MIG
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
DRUG BANK
DB11135
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
MESH
D012643
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
MERCK INDEX
M9838
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 15:22:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY Merck Index