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Details

Stereochemistry RACEMIC
Molecular Formula C3H2ClF5O
Molecular Weight 184.4924
Optical Activity ( + / - )
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 1
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of ISOFLURANE

SMILES

C(C(F)(F)F)(Cl)OC(F)F

InChI

InChIKey=PIWKPBJCKXDKJR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI=1S/C3H2ClF5O/c4-1(3(7,8)9)10-2(5)6/h1-2H

HIDE SMILES / InChI
Isoflurane (1-chloro-2, 2,2-trifluoroethyl difluoromethyl ether) a nonflammable liquid administered by vaporizing, is a general inhalation anesthetic drug. Isoflurane is a clear, colorless, stable liquid containing no additives or chemical stabilizers. Similar to many general anesthetics, the exact mechanism of the action has not been clearly delineated. Isoflurane reduces pain sensitivity (analgesia) and relaxes muscles. Isoflurane likely potentiates GABA-A and glycine receptor activity, which decreases motor function, inhibits receptor activity in the NMDA glutamate receptor subtypes and binds to glutamate receptors. Isoflurane is always administered in conjunction with air and/or pure oxygen. Often nitrous oxide is also used. Although its physical properties imply that anesthesia can be induced more rapidly than with halothane, its pungency can irritate the respiratory system, negating this theoretical advantage conferred by its physical properties. It is usually used to maintain a state of general anesthesia that has been induced with another drug, such as thiopentone or propofol.

Approval Year

TargetsConditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Primary
FORANE

Approved Use

INDICATIONS & USAGE Isoflurane may be used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. Adequate data have not been developed to establish its application in obstetrical anesthesia.

Launch Date

3.14323206E11
Cmax

Cmax

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
800 μg/mL
180 mg/kg single, intravenous
dose: 180 mg/kg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
ISOFLURANE plasma
Canis lupus
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
AUC

AUC

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
4.765 μg × min/mL
180 mg/kg single, intravenous
dose: 180 mg/kg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
ISOFLURANE plasma
Canis lupus
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
T1/2

T1/2

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
18.01 min
180 mg/kg single, intravenous
dose: 180 mg/kg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
ISOFLURANE plasma
Canis lupus
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
Doses

Doses

DosePopulationAdverse events​
1382.4 % * h multiple, respiratory
Highest studied dose
Dose: 1382.4 % * h
Route: respiratory
Route: multiple
Dose: 1382.4 % * h
Sources:
unhealthy, 25 years
n = 1
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: 25 years
Sex: M
Population Size: 1
Sources:
1975.2 % * h multiple, respiratory
Highest studied dose
Dose: 1975.2 % * h
Route: respiratory
Route: multiple
Dose: 1975.2 % * h
Sources:
unhealthy, 4 years
n = 1
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: 4 years
Sex: F
Population Size: 1
Sources:
Overview

Overview

CYP3A4CYP2C9CYP2D6hERG


OverviewOther

Other InhibitorOther SubstrateOther Inducer




Drug as perpetrator​Drug as victim

Drug as victim

TargetModalityActivityMetaboliteClinical evidence
yes
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
Assessment of renal effects of sevoflurane in elderly patients using urinary markers.
1999 Jun
Ketamine potentiates cerebrocortical damage induced by the common anaesthetic agent nitrous oxide in adult rats.
2000 Aug
The actions of ether, alcohol and alkane general anaesthetics on GABAA and glycine receptors and the effects of TM2 and TM3 mutations.
2000 Feb
The effects of pentobarbital, isoflurane, and propofol on immediate-early gene expression in the vital organs of the rat.
2000 May
Effects of diazepam and flumazenil on minimum alveolar concentrations for dogs anesthetized with isoflurane or a combination of isoflurane and fentanyl.
2001 Apr
The effects of volatile anesthetics on the Q-Tc interval.
2001 Apr
Desflurane pharmacokinetics during cardiopulmonary bypass.
2001 Apr
The effects of sevoflurane and isoflurane on intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure after diffuse brain injury in rats.
2001 Apr
Isoflurane enhances glutamate uptake via glutamate transporters in rat glial cells.
2001 Apr 17
Cardiac remodeling and contractile function in acid alpha-glucosidase knockout mice.
2001 Apr 27
An experimental study on the relationship of intra-abdominal pressure and renal ischemia.
2001 Feb
[Malignant hyperthermia in a pig anesthesized with desflurane].
2001 Feb
[Computer simulation and pharmacoeconomics. Computer simulation as an aid for the analysis of operating room efficiency: an example].
2001 Feb
No effect of albinism on sedative-hypnotic sensitivity to ethanol and anesthetics.
2001 Feb
Can anesthesiologic strategies for caesarean section influence newborn jaundice? A retrospective and prospective study.
2001 Feb
Absence of direct antioxidant effects from volatile anesthetics in primary mixed neuronal-glial cultures.
2001 Feb
Cardiovascular effects of sevoflurane, isoflurane, halothane, and fentanyl-midazolam in children with congenital heart disease: an echocardiographic study of myocardial contractility and hemodynamics.
2001 Feb
Desflurane or sevoflurane for gynaecological day-case anaesthesia with spontaneous respiration?
2001 Feb
Clinical evaluation of the Mapleson theoretical ideal fresh gas flow sequence at the start of low-flow anaesthesia with isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane.
2001 Feb
Online monitoring of air quality at the postanesthetic care unit by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry.
2001 Feb
The use of esmolol as an alternative to remifentanil during desflurane anesthesia for fast-track outpatient gynecologic laparoscopic surgery.
2001 Feb
Propofol action in both spinal cord and brain blunts electroencephalographic responses to noxious stimulation in goats.
2001 Feb 1
Minimal flow sevoflurane and isoflurane anaesthesia and impact on renal function.
2001 Jan
Comparative analysis of costs of total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol and remifentanil vs. balanced anaesthesia with isoflurane and fentanyl.
2001 Jan
[Anesthesia for a patient with cardiac sarcoidosis].
2001 Jan
[Anesthetic experience of emergency coronary artery bypass graft operation in a patient with cardioamyloidosis].
2001 Jan
[The effects of intravenous nicardipine on jugular venous oxygen saturation].
2001 Jan
A follow-up study on occupational exposure to inhaled anaesthetics in Eastern European surgeons and circulating nurses.
2001 Jan
Effects of neuroprotective cocktails on hippocampal neuron death in an in vitro model of cerebral ischemia.
2001 Jan
Intracranial electroencephalographic changes in deep anesthesia.
2001 Jan
The Combitube in elective surgery: a report of 200 cases.
2001 Jan
Clonidine combined with a long acting local anesthetic does not prolong postoperative analgesia after brachial plexus block but does induce hemodynamic changes.
2001 Jan
Ondansetron is no more effective than supplemental intraoperative oxygen for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting.
2001 Jan
Fast-track office-based anesthesia: a comparison of propofol versus desflurane with antiemetic prophylaxis in spontaneously breathing patients.
2001 Jan
Respiratory reflexes in response to upper-airway administration of sevoflurane and isoflurane in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing dogs.
2001 Jan-Feb
Interaction between nitric oxide and renal myogenic autoregulation in normotensive and hypertensive rats.
2001 Mar
Respiratory reflexes in spontaneously breathing anesthetized dogs in response to nasal administration of sevoflurane, isoflurane, or halothane.
2001 Mar
The effect of the preemptive use of the NMDA receptor antagonist dextromethorphan on postoperative analgesic requirements.
2001 Mar
The effects of low-flow sevoflurane and isoflurane anesthesia on renal function in patients with stable moderate renal insufficiency.
2001 Mar
The effect of chronic cocaine administration on hemodynamic stability and neurohumoral mediators during isoflurane anesthesia and shock in rats.
2001 Mar
Recovery profile and side effects of remifentanil-based anaesthesia with desflurane or propofol for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
2001 Mar
Genomic and functional characteristics of novel human pancreatic 2P domain K(+) channels.
2001 Mar 23
Composition of CO(2) absorbents.
2001 May
Modulation of NMDA receptor function by ketamine and magnesium. Part II: interactions with volatile anesthetics.
2001 May
The efficacy and resource utilization of remifentanil and fentanyl in fast-track coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a prospective randomized, double-blinded controlled, multi-center trial.
2001 May
Does discontinuation of desflurane at the time of neostigmine administration speed recovery from cisatracurium block compared to that with a propofol-based technique?
2001 May
Anesthetic inhibition in ischemic and nonischemic murine heart: comparison with conscious echocardiographic approach.
2001 May
Single-channel basis for conductance increase induced by isoflurane in Shaker H4 IR K(+) channels.
2001 May
Patents

Patents

Sample Use Guides

Inspired concentrations of 1.5 to 3.0% isoflurane usually produce surgical anesthesia in 7 to 10 minutes.
Route of Administration: Respiratory
The effects of isoflurane and enflurane on spontaneous action potential firing were investigated by extracellular voltage recordings from ventral horn interneurones in cultured spinal cord tissue slices obtained from embryonic rats. Spinal cord slices were continuously perfused with an artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF). Test solutions including isoflurane (0.32 mM) was prepared by dissolving the liquid form in ACSF equilibrated with 95% oxygen and 5% carbon dioxide. Anaesthetics were administered via bath perfusion using gas-tight syringe pumps. The flow rate was approximately 1 ml min-1. To ensure steady-state conditions, recordings during anaesthetic treatment were carried out 10–15 min after starting the perfusate change.
Name Type Language
ISOFLURANE
EP   GREEN BOOK   INN   MART.   MI   ORANGE BOOK   USAN   USP   USP-RS   VANDF   WHO-DD  
INN   USAN  
Official Name English
FORANE
Brand Name English
ISOFLURANE [INN]
Common Name English
ISOFLURANE [USAN]
Common Name English
ETHANE, 2-CHLORO-2-(DIFLUOROMETHOXY)-1,1,1-TRIFLUORO-
Systematic Name English
ISOFLURANE [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
ISOFLURANE [MART.]
Common Name English
ISOFLURANE [MI]
Common Name English
ISOFLURANE [USP MONOGRAPH]
Common Name English
1-CHLORO-2,2,2-TRIFLUROETHYL DIFLUROMETHYL ETHER
Systematic Name English
ISOFLURANE [EP MONOGRAPH]
Common Name English
ISOFLURANE [JAN]
Common Name English
ISOFLURANE [ORANGE BOOK]
Common Name English
ISOFLURANE [GREEN BOOK]
Common Name English
COMPOUND-469
Code English
COMPOUND 469
Code English
ISOFLURANE [USP-RS]
Common Name English
ISOFLURANE [VANDF]
Common Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
NDF-RT N0000175681
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021
WHO-ESSENTIAL MEDICINES LIST 1.1.1
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021
NCI_THESAURUS C245
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WHO-ATC N01AB06
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LIVERTOX 519
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WHO-VATC QN01AB06
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NDF-RT N0000175975
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021
Code System Code Type Description
MERCK INDEX
M6491
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PRIMARY Merck Index
CAS
26675-46-7
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PRIMARY
LACTMED
Isoflurane
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PRIMARY
RXCUI
6026
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PRIMARY RxNorm
DRUG BANK
DB00753
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PRIMARY
NCI_THESAURUS
C65978
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PRIMARY
DRUG CENTRAL
1493
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PRIMARY
FDA UNII
CYS9AKD70P
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PRIMARY
INN
3286
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PRIMARY
EPA CompTox
26675-46-7
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PRIMARY
HSDB
8057
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PRIMARY
IUPHAR
2505
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PRIMARY
WIKIPEDIA
ISOFLURANE
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PRIMARY
MESH
D007530
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PRIMARY
PUBCHEM
3763
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PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB08319MIG
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PRIMARY
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1256
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PRIMARY
USP_CATALOG
1349003
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PRIMARY USP-RS
ECHA (EC/EINECS)
247-897-7
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PRIMARY