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Details

Stereochemistry RACEMIC
Molecular Formula C3H2ClF5O
Molecular Weight 184.4924
Optical Activity ( + / - )
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 1
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of ISOFLURANE

SMILES

C(C(F)(F)F)(Cl)OC(F)F

InChI

InChIKey=PIWKPBJCKXDKJR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI=1S/C3H2ClF5O/c4-1(3(7,8)9)10-2(5)6/h1-2H

HIDE SMILES / InChI
Isoflurane (1-chloro-2, 2,2-trifluoroethyl difluoromethyl ether) a nonflammable liquid administered by vaporizing, is a general inhalation anesthetic drug. Isoflurane is a clear, colorless, stable liquid containing no additives or chemical stabilizers. Similar to many general anesthetics, the exact mechanism of the action has not been clearly delineated. Isoflurane reduces pain sensitivity (analgesia) and relaxes muscles. Isoflurane likely potentiates GABA-A and glycine receptor activity, which decreases motor function, inhibits receptor activity in the NMDA glutamate receptor subtypes and binds to glutamate receptors. Isoflurane is always administered in conjunction with air and/or pure oxygen. Often nitrous oxide is also used. Although its physical properties imply that anesthesia can be induced more rapidly than with halothane, its pungency can irritate the respiratory system, negating this theoretical advantage conferred by its physical properties. It is usually used to maintain a state of general anesthesia that has been induced with another drug, such as thiopentone or propofol.

Approval Year

TargetsConditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Primary
FORANE

Approved Use

INDICATIONS & USAGE Isoflurane may be used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. Adequate data have not been developed to establish its application in obstetrical anesthesia.

Launch Date

314323200000
Cmax

Cmax

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
800 μg/mL
180 mg/kg single, intravenous
dose: 180 mg/kg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
ISOFLURANE plasma
Canis lupus
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
AUC

AUC

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
4.765 μg × min/mL
180 mg/kg single, intravenous
dose: 180 mg/kg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
ISOFLURANE plasma
Canis lupus
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
T1/2

T1/2

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
18.01 min
180 mg/kg single, intravenous
dose: 180 mg/kg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
ISOFLURANE plasma
Canis lupus
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
Doses

Doses

DosePopulationAdverse events​
1382.4 % * h multiple, respiratory
Highest studied dose
dose: 1382.4 % * h
route: respiratory
experiment_type: multiple
dose_type: Highest studied dose
co-adm with
    data_source:
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20841413
    unhealthy, 25 years
    population: unhealthy
    age: 25 years
    sex: M
    food_status:
    n:
    data_source:
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20841413
    1975.2 % * h multiple, respiratory
    Highest studied dose
    dose: 1975.2 % * h
    route: respiratory
    experiment_type: multiple
    dose_type: Highest studied dose
    co-adm with
      data_source:
      https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20841413
      unhealthy, 4 years
      population: unhealthy
      age: 4 years
      sex: F
      food_status:
      n:
      data_source:
      https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20841413
      Overview

      Overview

      CYP3A4CYP2C9CYP2D6hERG


      OverviewOther

      Other InhibitorOther SubstrateOther Inducer




      Drug as perpetrator​Drug as victim

      Drug as victim

      TargetModalityActivityMetaboliteClinical evidence
      yes
      PubMed

      PubMed

      TitleDatePubMed
      Physiology in medicine: importance of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in maintaining arterial oxygenation during acute respiratory failure.
      2001
      Anesthesia for Cesarean section and posterior fossa craniotomy in a patient with von Hippel-Lindau disease.
      2001 Apr
      Desflurane, compared to halothane, augments phenylephrine-induced contraction in isolated rat aorta smooth muscle.
      2001 Apr
      Neostigmine antagonism of rocuronium block during anesthesia with sevoflurane, isoflurane or propofol.
      2001 Apr
      Effects of diazepam and flumazenil on minimum alveolar concentrations for dogs anesthetized with isoflurane or a combination of isoflurane and fentanyl.
      2001 Apr
      Induction of anaesthesia with desflurane and isoflurane in the rabbit.
      2001 Apr
      Inhaled nitric oxide administration during one-lung ventilation in patients undergoing thoracic surgery.
      2001 Apr
      The effects of volatile anesthetics on the Q-Tc interval.
      2001 Apr
      Desflurane pharmacokinetics during cardiopulmonary bypass.
      2001 Apr
      Sevoflurane versus isoflurane in patients undergoing valvular cardiac surgery.
      2001 Apr
      Ultra-fast-track anesthetic technique facilitates operating room extubation in patients undergoing off-pump coronary revascularization surgery.
      2001 Apr
      The effects of sevoflurane and isoflurane on intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure after diffuse brain injury in rats.
      2001 Apr
      Thoracic epidural anesthesia combined with general anesthesia: the preferred anesthetic technique for thoracic surgery.
      2001 Apr
      Effects of chronic exposure to anaesthetic gases on some immune parameters.
      2001 Apr 10
      Isoflurane enhances glutamate uptake via glutamate transporters in rat glial cells.
      2001 Apr 17
      Cardiac remodeling and contractile function in acid alpha-glucosidase knockout mice.
      2001 Apr 27
      Increase in rat plasma antioxidant activity after E. coli lipopolysaccharide administration.
      2001 Feb
      An experimental study on the relationship of intra-abdominal pressure and renal ischemia.
      2001 Feb
      [Epileptogenic drugs in anesthesia].
      2001 Feb
      [Malignant hyperthermia in a pig anesthesized with desflurane].
      2001 Feb
      [Prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in gynecologic surgery with 3 fixed doses of metoclopramide, droperidol or placebo].
      2001 Feb
      [Computer simulation and pharmacoeconomics. Computer simulation as an aid for the analysis of operating room efficiency: an example].
      2001 Feb
      [Clinical evaluation of roxatidine acetate hydrochlorides as a preanesthetic medication].
      2001 Feb
      No effect of albinism on sedative-hypnotic sensitivity to ethanol and anesthetics.
      2001 Feb
      Minimal flow sevoflurane and isoflurane anaesthesia and impact on renal function.
      2001 Jan
      Comparative analysis of costs of total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol and remifentanil vs. balanced anaesthesia with isoflurane and fentanyl.
      2001 Jan
      [First experience in the use of isoflurane in minor surgical interventions in children].
      2001 Jan-Feb
      [Oxygen transport parameters in halothane and isoflurane anesthesia with the low gas flow in children].
      2001 Jan-Feb
      [The effect of anesthetic technique on recovery from neuromuscular blockade with cisatracurium].
      2001 Mar
      Derived fuzzy knowledge model for estimating the depth of anesthesia.
      2001 Mar
      Pediatric renal transplantation: anesthesia and perioperative complications.
      2001 Mar
      Interaction between nitric oxide and renal myogenic autoregulation in normotensive and hypertensive rats.
      2001 Mar
      Respiratory reflexes in spontaneously breathing anesthetized dogs in response to nasal administration of sevoflurane, isoflurane, or halothane.
      2001 Mar
      Effects of isoflurane, enflurane, and halothane on skeletal muscle microcirculation in the endotoxemic rat.
      2001 Mar
      The effect of epidural anesthesia on respiratory distress induced by airway occlusion in isoflurane-anesthetized cats.
      2001 Mar
      Evidence for a common binding cavity for three general anesthetics within the GABAA receptor.
      2001 Mar 15
      Genomic and functional characteristics of novel human pancreatic 2P domain K(+) channels.
      2001 Mar 23
      Minimal alveolar concentration of desflurane in combination with an infusion of medetomidine for the anaesthesia of ponies.
      2001 Mar 3
      Intrathecal magnesium sulfate attenuates algogenic behavior and spinal amino acids release after kainic acid receptor activation in rats.
      2001 Mar 30
      Composition of CO(2) absorbents.
      2001 May
      Modulation of NMDA receptor function by ketamine and magnesium. Part II: interactions with volatile anesthetics.
      2001 May
      The efficacy and resource utilization of remifentanil and fentanyl in fast-track coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a prospective randomized, double-blinded controlled, multi-center trial.
      2001 May
      A randomized double-blinded multicenter comparison of remifentanil versus fentanyl when combined with isoflurane/propofol for early extubation in coronary artery bypass graft surgery.
      2001 May
      Coagulation assessment in healthy pigs undergoing single xenon anaesthesia and combinations with isoflurane and sevoflurane.
      2001 May
      Clonidine decreases intraoperative bleeding in middle ear microsurgery.
      2001 May
      Ease of laryngeal passage during fibreoptic intubation: a comparison of three endotracheal tubes.
      2001 May
      Does discontinuation of desflurane at the time of neostigmine administration speed recovery from cisatracurium block compared to that with a propofol-based technique?
      2001 May
      Haemodynamic changes and vasopressin release are not consistently associated with carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum in humans.
      2001 May
      Anesthetic inhibition in ischemic and nonischemic murine heart: comparison with conscious echocardiographic approach.
      2001 May
      Single-channel basis for conductance increase induced by isoflurane in Shaker H4 IR K(+) channels.
      2001 May
      Patents

      Patents

      Sample Use Guides

      Inspired concentrations of 1.5 to 3.0% isoflurane usually produce surgical anesthesia in 7 to 10 minutes.
      Route of Administration: Respiratory
      The effects of isoflurane and enflurane on spontaneous action potential firing were investigated by extracellular voltage recordings from ventral horn interneurones in cultured spinal cord tissue slices obtained from embryonic rats. Spinal cord slices were continuously perfused with an artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF). Test solutions including isoflurane (0.32 mM) was prepared by dissolving the liquid form in ACSF equilibrated with 95% oxygen and 5% carbon dioxide. Anaesthetics were administered via bath perfusion
      Name Type Language
      ISOFLURANE
      EP   GREEN BOOK   INN   MART.   MI   ORANGE BOOK   USAN   USP   USP-RS   VANDF   WHO-DD  
      INN   USAN  
      Official Name English
      FORANE
      Brand Name English
      ISOFLURANE [INN]
      Common Name English
      ISOFLURANE [USAN]
      Common Name English
      ETHANE, 2-CHLORO-2-(DIFLUOROMETHOXY)-1,1,1-TRIFLUORO-
      Systematic Name English
      ISOFLURANE [WHO-DD]
      Common Name English
      ISOFLURANE [MART.]
      Common Name English
      ISOFLURANE [MI]
      Common Name English
      ISOFLURANE [USP MONOGRAPH]
      Common Name English
      1-CHLORO-2,2,2-TRIFLUROETHYL DIFLUROMETHYL ETHER
      Systematic Name English
      ISOFLURANE [EP MONOGRAPH]
      Common Name English
      ISOFLURANE [JAN]
      Common Name English
      ISOFLURANE [ORANGE BOOK]
      Common Name English
      ISOFLURANE [GREEN BOOK]
      Common Name English
      COMPOUND-469
      Code English
      COMPOUND 469
      Code English
      ISOFLURANE [USP-RS]
      Common Name English
      ISOFLURANE [VANDF]
      Common Name English
      Classification Tree Code System Code
      NDF-RT N0000175681
      Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021
      WHO-ESSENTIAL MEDICINES LIST 1.1.1
      Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021
      NCI_THESAURUS C245
      Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021
      WHO-ATC N01AB06
      Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021
      LIVERTOX 519
      Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021
      WHO-VATC QN01AB06
      Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021
      NDF-RT N0000175975
      Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021
      Code System Code Type Description
      MERCK INDEX
      M6491
      Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021
      PRIMARY Merck Index
      CAS
      26675-46-7
      Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021
      PRIMARY
      LACTMED
      Isoflurane
      Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021
      PRIMARY
      RXCUI
      6026
      Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021
      PRIMARY RxNorm
      DRUG BANK
      DB00753
      Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021
      PRIMARY
      NCI_THESAURUS
      C65978
      Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021
      PRIMARY
      DRUG CENTRAL
      1493
      Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021
      PRIMARY
      FDA UNII
      CYS9AKD70P
      Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021
      PRIMARY
      INN
      3286
      Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021
      PRIMARY
      EPA CompTox
      26675-46-7
      Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021
      PRIMARY
      HSDB
      8057
      Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021
      PRIMARY
      IUPHAR
      2505
      Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021
      PRIMARY
      WIKIPEDIA
      ISOFLURANE
      Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021
      PRIMARY
      MESH
      D007530
      Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021
      PRIMARY
      PUBCHEM
      3763
      Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021
      PRIMARY
      EVMPD
      SUB08319MIG
      Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021
      PRIMARY
      ChEMBL
      CHEMBL1256
      Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021
      PRIMARY
      USP_CATALOG
      1349003
      Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021
      PRIMARY USP-RS
      ECHA (EC/EINECS)
      247-897-7
      Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:56:49 UTC 2021
      PRIMARY