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Details

Stereochemistry ABSOLUTE
Molecular Formula C47H73NO17
Molecular Weight 924.0808
Optical Activity UNSPECIFIED
Defined Stereocenters 19 / 19
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of AMPHOTERICIN B

SMILES

C[C@@]1([H])/C(/[H])=C(\[H])/C(/[H])=C(\[H])/C(/[H])=C(\[H])/C(/[H])=C(\[H])/C(/[H])=C(\[H])/C(/[H])=C(\[H])/C(/[H])=C(\[H])/[C@@]([H])(C[C@@]2([H])[C@@]([H])([C@]([H])(C[C@](C[C@]([H])(C[C@]([H])([C@@]([H])(CC[C@]([H])(C[C@]([H])(CC(=O)O[C@@]([H])(C)[C@]([H])(C)[C@]1([H])O)O)O)O)O)O)(O)O2)O)C(=O)O)O[C@@]3([H])[C@]([H])([C@]([H])([C@@]([H])([C@@]([H])(C)O3)O)N)O

InChI

InChIKey=APKFDSVGJQXUKY-INPOYWNPSA-N
InChI=1S/C47H73NO17/c1-27-17-15-13-11-9-7-5-6-8-10-12-14-16-18-34(64-46-44(58)41(48)43(57)30(4)63-46)24-38-40(45(59)60)37(54)26-47(61,65-38)25-33(51)22-36(53)35(52)20-19-31(49)21-32(50)23-39(55)62-29(3)28(2)42(27)56/h5-18,27-38,40-44,46,49-54,56-58,61H,19-26,48H2,1-4H3,(H,59,60)/b6-5+,9-7+,10-8+,13-11+,14-12+,17-15+,18-16+/t27-,28-,29-,30+,31+,32+,33-,34-,35+,36+,37-,38-,40+,41-,42+,43+,44-,46-,47+/m0/s1

HIDE SMILES / InChI

Description
Curator's Comment:: Description was created based on several sources, including: http://www.drugs.com/monograph/amphotericin-b.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amphotericin_B#cite_note-45 http://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00681

Amphotericin B used to treat progressive, potentially life-threatening fungal infections, such as oral thrush, vaginal candidiasis and esophageal candidiasis in patients with normal neutrophil counts. Also, Amphotericin B is often used in otherwise-untreatable protozoan infections such as visceral leishmaniasis and primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. As with other polyene antifungals, amphotericin B binds with ergosterol, a component of fungal cell membranes, forming a transmembrane channel that leads to monovalent ion (K+, Na+, H+ and Cl−) leakage, which is the primary effect leading to fungal cell death. When administered concurrently, the following drugs may interact with amphotericin B: Antineoplastic agents, Corticosteroids and Corticotropin (ACTH); Digitalis glycosides; Flucytosine; Imidazoles (e.g., ketoconazole, miconazole, clotrimazole, fluconazole, etc.); Zidovudine; Skeletal muscle relaxants (tubocurarine); Rifabutin; Leukocyte transfusions. The adverse reactions most commonly observed are: fever; malaise; weight loss; hypotension; tachypnea; anorexia; nausea; vomiting; diarrhea; dyspepsia; cramping epigastric pain; normochromic, normocytic anemia; pain at the injection site with or without phlebitis or thrombophlebitis; generalized pain, including muscle and joint pains; headache; decreased renal function and renal function abnormalities.

CNS Activity

Curator's Comment:: Amphotericin B remains the standard of treatment for certain CNS infections, such as cryptococcal meningitis

Originator

Curator's Comment:: Amphotericin B was originally extracted from Streptomyces nodosus in 1955 at the Squibb Institute for Medical Research. The first synthesis of the Amphotericin B was achieved in 1988 at the University of Pennsylvania. Today X-gen Pharms (formerly Pharma Tek) develop conventional Amphotericin B for Injection (approved since 1992).

Approval Year

TargetsConditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Curative
Unknown

Approved Use

Unknown
Curative
Unknown

Approved Use

Unknown
Curative
AMPHOTERICIN B

Approved Use

Amphotericin B for Injection USP should be administered primarily to patients with progressive, potentially life-threatening fungal infections. This potent drug should not be used to treat noninvasive fungal infections, such as oral thrush, vaginal candidiasis and esophageal candidiasis in patients with normal neutrophil counts. Amphotericin B for Injection USP is specifically intended to treat potentially life-threatening fungal infections: aspergillosis, cryptococcosis (torulosis), North American blastomycosis, systemic candidiasis, coccidioido-mycosis, histoplasmosis, zygomycosis including mucormycosis due to susceptible species of the genera Absidia, Mucor and Rhizopus, and infections due to related susceptible species of Conidiobolus and Basidiobolus, and sporotrichosis. Amphotericin B may be useful in the treatment of American mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, but it is not the drug of choice as primary therapy.

Launch Date

7.0450558E11
Curative
AMPHOTERICIN B

Approved Use

Amphotericin B for Injection USP should be administered primarily to patients with progressive, potentially life-threatening fungal infections. This potent drug should not be used to treat noninvasive fungal infections, such as oral thrush, vaginal candidiasis and esophageal candidiasis in patients with normal neutrophil counts. Amphotericin B for Injection USP is specifically intended to treat potentially life-threatening fungal infections: aspergillosis, cryptococcosis (torulosis), North American blastomycosis, systemic candidiasis, coccidioido-mycosis, histoplasmosis, zygomycosis including mucormycosis due to susceptible species of the genera Absidia, Mucor and Rhizopus, and infections due to related susceptible species of Conidiobolus and Basidiobolus, and sporotrichosis. Amphotericin B may be useful in the treatment of American mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, but it is not the drug of choice as primary therapy.

Launch Date

7.0450558E11
Curative
AMPHOTERICIN B

Approved Use

Amphotericin B for Injection USP should be administered primarily to patients with progressive, potentially life-threatening fungal infections. This potent drug should not be used to treat noninvasive fungal infections, such as oral thrush, vaginal candidiasis and esophageal candidiasis in patients with normal neutrophil counts. Amphotericin B for Injection USP is specifically intended to treat potentially life-threatening fungal infections: aspergillosis, cryptococcosis (torulosis), North American blastomycosis, systemic candidiasis, coccidioido-mycosis, histoplasmosis, zygomycosis including mucormycosis due to susceptible species of the genera Absidia, Mucor and Rhizopus, and infections due to related susceptible species of Conidiobolus and Basidiobolus, and sporotrichosis. Amphotericin B may be useful in the treatment of American mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, but it is not the drug of choice as primary therapy.

Launch Date

7.0450558E11
Curative
AMPHOTERICIN B

Approved Use

Amphotericin B for Injection USP should be administered primarily to patients with progressive, potentially life-threatening fungal infections. This potent drug should not be used to treat noninvasive fungal infections, such as oral thrush, vaginal candidiasis and esophageal candidiasis in patients with normal neutrophil counts. Amphotericin B for Injection USP is specifically intended to treat potentially life-threatening fungal infections: aspergillosis, cryptococcosis (torulosis), North American blastomycosis, systemic candidiasis, coccidioido-mycosis, histoplasmosis, zygomycosis including mucormycosis due to susceptible species of the genera Absidia, Mucor and Rhizopus, and infections due to related susceptible species of Conidiobolus and Basidiobolus, and sporotrichosis. Amphotericin B may be useful in the treatment of American mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, but it is not the drug of choice as primary therapy.

Launch Date

7.0450558E11
Curative
AMPHOTERICIN B

Approved Use

Amphotericin B for Injection USP should be administered primarily to patients with progressive, potentially life-threatening fungal infections. This potent drug should not be used to treat noninvasive fungal infections, such as oral thrush, vaginal candidiasis and esophageal candidiasis in patients with normal neutrophil counts. Amphotericin B for Injection USP is specifically intended to treat potentially life-threatening fungal infections: aspergillosis, cryptococcosis (torulosis), North American blastomycosis, systemic candidiasis, coccidioido-mycosis, histoplasmosis, zygomycosis including mucormycosis due to susceptible species of the genera Absidia, Mucor and Rhizopus, and infections due to related susceptible species of Conidiobolus and Basidiobolus, and sporotrichosis. Amphotericin B may be useful in the treatment of American mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, but it is not the drug of choice as primary therapy.

Launch Date

7.0450558E11
Curative
AMPHOTERICIN B

Approved Use

Amphotericin B for Injection USP should be administered primarily to patients with progressive, potentially life-threatening fungal infections. This potent drug should not be used to treat noninvasive fungal infections, such as oral thrush, vaginal candidiasis and esophageal candidiasis in patients with normal neutrophil counts. Amphotericin B for Injection USP is specifically intended to treat potentially life-threatening fungal infections: aspergillosis, cryptococcosis (torulosis), North American blastomycosis, systemic candidiasis, coccidioido-mycosis, histoplasmosis, zygomycosis including mucormycosis due to susceptible species of the genera Absidia, Mucor and Rhizopus, and infections due to related susceptible species of Conidiobolus and Basidiobolus, and sporotrichosis. Amphotericin B may be useful in the treatment of American mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, but it is not the drug of choice as primary therapy.

Launch Date

7.0450558E11
Curative
AMPHOTERICIN B

Approved Use

Amphotericin B for Injection USP should be administered primarily to patients with progressive, potentially life-threatening fungal infections. This potent drug should not be used to treat noninvasive fungal infections, such as oral thrush, vaginal candidiasis and esophageal candidiasis in patients with normal neutrophil counts. Amphotericin B for Injection USP is specifically intended to treat potentially life-threatening fungal infections: aspergillosis, cryptococcosis (torulosis), North American blastomycosis, systemic candidiasis, coccidioido-mycosis, histoplasmosis, zygomycosis including mucormycosis due to susceptible species of the genera Absidia, Mucor and Rhizopus, and infections due to related susceptible species of Conidiobolus and Basidiobolus, and sporotrichosis. Amphotericin B may be useful in the treatment of American mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, but it is not the drug of choice as primary therapy.

Launch Date

7.0450558E11
Curative
AMPHOTERICIN B

Approved Use

Amphotericin B for Injection USP should be administered primarily to patients with progressive, potentially life-threatening fungal infections. This potent drug should not be used to treat noninvasive fungal infections, such as oral thrush, vaginal candidiasis and esophageal candidiasis in patients with normal neutrophil counts. Amphotericin B for Injection USP is specifically intended to treat potentially life-threatening fungal infections: aspergillosis, cryptococcosis (torulosis), North American blastomycosis, systemic candidiasis, coccidioido-mycosis, histoplasmosis, zygomycosis including mucormycosis due to susceptible species of the genera Absidia, Mucor and Rhizopus, and infections due to related susceptible species of Conidiobolus and Basidiobolus, and sporotrichosis. Amphotericin B may be useful in the treatment of American mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, but it is not the drug of choice as primary therapy.

Launch Date

7.0450558E11
Curative
AMPHOTERICIN B

Approved Use

Amphotericin B for Injection USP should be administered primarily to patients with progressive, potentially life-threatening fungal infections. This potent drug should not be used to treat noninvasive fungal infections, such as oral thrush, vaginal candidiasis and esophageal candidiasis in patients with normal neutrophil counts. Amphotericin B for Injection USP is specifically intended to treat potentially life-threatening fungal infections: aspergillosis, cryptococcosis (torulosis), North American blastomycosis, systemic candidiasis, coccidioido-mycosis, histoplasmosis, zygomycosis including mucormycosis due to susceptible species of the genera Absidia, Mucor and Rhizopus, and infections due to related susceptible species of Conidiobolus and Basidiobolus, and sporotrichosis. Amphotericin B may be useful in the treatment of American mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, but it is not the drug of choice as primary therapy.

Launch Date

7.0450558E11
Curative
AMPHOTERICIN B

Approved Use

Amphotericin B for Injection USP should be administered primarily to patients with progressive, potentially life-threatening fungal infections. This potent drug should not be used to treat noninvasive fungal infections, such as oral thrush, vaginal candidiasis and esophageal candidiasis in patients with normal neutrophil counts. Amphotericin B for Injection USP is specifically intended to treat potentially life-threatening fungal infections: aspergillosis, cryptococcosis (torulosis), North American blastomycosis, systemic candidiasis, coccidioido-mycosis, histoplasmosis, zygomycosis including mucormycosis due to susceptible species of the genera Absidia, Mucor and Rhizopus, and infections due to related susceptible species of Conidiobolus and Basidiobolus, and sporotrichosis. Amphotericin B may be useful in the treatment of American mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, but it is not the drug of choice as primary therapy.

Launch Date

7.0450558E11
Cmax

Cmax

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
31.4 μg/mL
2.5 mg/kg 1 times / day multiple, intravenous
dose: 2.5 mg/kg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: MULTIPLE
co-administered:
AMPHOTERICIN B serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
57.6 μg/mL
5 mg/kg single, intravenous
dose: 5 mg/kg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMPHOTERICIN B serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
7.3 μg/mL
1 mg/kg single, intravenous
dose: 1 mg/kg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMPHOTERICIN B serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
62.4 μg/mL
7.5 mg/kg 1 times / day multiple, intravenous
dose: 7.5 mg/kg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: MULTIPLE
co-administered:
AMPHOTERICIN B serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
83.7 μg/mL
7.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
dose: 7.5 mg/kg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMPHOTERICIN B serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
83 μg/mL
5 mg/kg 1 times / day multiple, intravenous
dose: 5 mg/kg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: MULTIPLE
co-administered:
AMPHOTERICIN B serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
12.2 μg/mL
1 mg/kg 1 times / day multiple, intravenous
dose: 1 mg/kg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: MULTIPLE
co-administered:
AMPHOTERICIN B serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
17.2 μg/mL
2.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
dose: 2.5 mg/kg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMPHOTERICIN B serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
AUC

AUC

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
197 μg × h/mL
2.5 mg/kg 1 times / day multiple, intravenous
dose: 2.5 mg/kg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: MULTIPLE
co-administered:
AMPHOTERICIN B serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
269 μg × h/mL
5 mg/kg single, intravenous
dose: 5 mg/kg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMPHOTERICIN B serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
27 μg × h/mL
1 mg/kg single, intravenous
dose: 1 mg/kg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMPHOTERICIN B serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
382 μg × h/mL
7.5 mg/kg 1 times / day multiple, intravenous
dose: 7.5 mg/kg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: MULTIPLE
co-administered:
AMPHOTERICIN B serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
476 μg × h/mL
7.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
dose: 7.5 mg/kg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMPHOTERICIN B serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
555 μg × h/mL
5 mg/kg 1 times / day multiple, intravenous
dose: 5 mg/kg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: MULTIPLE
co-administered:
AMPHOTERICIN B serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
60 μg × h/mL
1 mg/kg 1 times / day multiple, intravenous
dose: 1 mg/kg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: MULTIPLE
co-administered:
AMPHOTERICIN B serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
65 μg × h/mL
2.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
dose: 2.5 mg/kg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMPHOTERICIN B serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
T1/2

T1/2

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
6.3 h
2.5 mg/kg 1 times / day multiple, intravenous
dose: 2.5 mg/kg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: MULTIPLE
co-administered:
AMPHOTERICIN B serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
6.4 h
5 mg/kg single, intravenous
dose: 5 mg/kg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMPHOTERICIN B serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
10.7 h
1 mg/kg single, intravenous
dose: 1 mg/kg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMPHOTERICIN B serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
6.9 h
7.5 mg/kg 1 times / day multiple, intravenous
dose: 7.5 mg/kg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: MULTIPLE
co-administered:
AMPHOTERICIN B serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
8.5 h
7.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
dose: 7.5 mg/kg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMPHOTERICIN B serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
6.8 h
5 mg/kg 1 times / day multiple, intravenous
dose: 5 mg/kg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: MULTIPLE
co-administered:
AMPHOTERICIN B serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
7 h
1 mg/kg 1 times / day multiple, intravenous
dose: 1 mg/kg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: MULTIPLE
co-administered:
AMPHOTERICIN B serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
8.1 h
2.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
dose: 2.5 mg/kg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMPHOTERICIN B serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
Funbound

Funbound

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
2.1%
AMPHOTERICIN B plasma
Homo sapiens
Doses

Doses

DosePopulationAdverse events​
0.7 mg/kg 1 times / day multiple, intravenous
Recommended
Dose: 0.7 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Route: intravenous
Route: multiple
Dose: 0.7 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Sources: Page: p. 27
unhealthy, 39 years (range: 21-68 years)
n = 87
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: 39 years (range: 21-68 years)
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 87
Sources: Page: p. 27
Disc. AE: Creatinine increased...
Other AEs: Nervous system disorder NOS, Cardiovascular injuries...
AEs leading to
discontinuation/dose reduction:
Creatinine increased (3.4%)
Other AEs:
Nervous system disorder NOS (3.4%)
Cardiovascular injuries (3.4%)
Sources: Page: p. 27
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Other AEs: Thrombocytopenia, Anaemia...
Other AEs:
Thrombocytopenia (serious, 2 patients)
Anaemia (serious, 1 patient)
Neutropenia (serious, 1 patient)
Pancytopenia (serious, 1 patient)
Cardiac arrest (serious, 4 patients)
Cardio-respiratory arrest (serious, 1 patient)
Pancreatitis (serious, 2 patients)
Ileus (serious, 1 patient)
Intestinal obstruction (serious, 1 patient)
Upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage (serious, 1 patient)
Vomiting (serious, 1 patient)
Chills (serious, 1 patient)
Mucosal inflammation (serious, 1 patient)
Multi-organ failure (serious, 1 patient)
Hepatic failure (serious, 2 patients)
Bile duct stone (serious, 1 patient)
Cholecystitis (serious, 1 patient)
Cholecystitis acute (serious, 1 patient)
Hepatic steatosis (serious, 1 patient)
Hepatocellular injury (serious, 1 patient)
Hyperbilirubinaemia (serious, 1 patient)
Liver disorder (serious, 1 patient)
Drug hypersensitivity (serious, 1 patient)
Hypersensitivity (serious, 1 patient)
Septic shock (serious, 13 patients)
Pneumonia (serious, 7 patients)
Device related infection (serious, 3 patients)
Clostridium difficile colitis (serious, 1 patient)
Enterococcal bacteraemia (serious, 1 patient)
Gastroenteritis (serious, 1 patient)
Infection staphylococcal (serious, 1 patient)
Streptococcal sepsis (serious, 1 patient)
Blood creatinine increased (serious, 3 patients)
Creatinine renal clearance decreased (serious, 2 patients)
Lymphocyte count decreased (serious, 1 patient)
White blood cell count decreased (serious, 1 patient)
Hypokalaemia (serious, 2 patients)
Hyperglycaemia (serious, 1 patient)
Hyponatraemia (serious, 1 patient)
Back pain (serious, 1 patient)
Joint swelling (serious, 1 patient)
Metastases to central nervous system (serious, 1 patient)
Cerebrovascular accident (serious, 1 patient)
Encephalitis (serious, 1 patient)
Encephalopathy hepatic (serious, 1 patient)
Renal tubular necrosis (serious, 1 patient)
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (serious, 2 patients)
Bronchospasm (serious, 1 patient)
Dyspnoea (serious, 1 patient)
Pneumothorax (serious, 1 patient)
Respiratory distress (serious, 1 patient)
Rash papular (serious, 1 patient)
Hypotension (serious, 1 patient)
Thrombocytopenia (below serious, 42 patients)
Nausea (below serious, 118 patients)
Abdominal pain upper (below serious, 39 patients)
Dyspepsia (below serious, 14 patients)
Oedema peripheral (below serious, 56 patients)
Chest pain (below serious, 18 patients)
Oedema (below serious, 15 patients)
Oral herpes (below serious, 22 patients)
Pneumonia (below serious, 15 patients)
Aspartate aminotransferase increased (below serious, 19 patients)
Blood bilirubin increased (below serious, 16 patients)
Blood creatinine increased (below serious, 20 patients)
Weight decreased (below serious, 13 patients)
Hypokalaemia (below serious, 83 patients)
Hypoalbuminaemia (below serious, 24 patients)
Hypocalcaemia (below serious, 18 patients)
Fluid retention (below serious, 15 patients)
Hypomagnesaemia (below serious, 12 patients)
Back pain (below serious, 34 patients)
Depression (below serious, 12 patients)
Rash (below serious, 39 patients)
Erythema (below serious, 19 patients)
Alopecia (below serious, 17 patients)
Pruritus (below serious, 13 patients)
Haematoma (below serious, 15 patients)
Sources:
AEs

AEs

AESignificanceDosePopulation
Cardiovascular injuries 3.4%
0.7 mg/kg 1 times / day multiple, intravenous
Recommended
Dose: 0.7 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Route: intravenous
Route: multiple
Dose: 0.7 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Sources: Page: p. 27
unhealthy, 39 years (range: 21-68 years)
n = 87
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: 39 years (range: 21-68 years)
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 87
Sources: Page: p. 27
Nervous system disorder NOS 3.4%
0.7 mg/kg 1 times / day multiple, intravenous
Recommended
Dose: 0.7 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Route: intravenous
Route: multiple
Dose: 0.7 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Sources: Page: p. 27
unhealthy, 39 years (range: 21-68 years)
n = 87
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: 39 years (range: 21-68 years)
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 87
Sources: Page: p. 27
Creatinine increased 3.4%
Disc. AE
0.7 mg/kg 1 times / day multiple, intravenous
Recommended
Dose: 0.7 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Route: intravenous
Route: multiple
Dose: 0.7 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Sources: Page: p. 27
unhealthy, 39 years (range: 21-68 years)
n = 87
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: 39 years (range: 21-68 years)
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 87
Sources: Page: p. 27
Nausea below serious, 118 patients
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Depression below serious, 12 patients
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Hypomagnesaemia below serious, 12 patients
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Pruritus below serious, 13 patients
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Weight decreased below serious, 13 patients
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Dyspepsia below serious, 14 patients
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Fluid retention below serious, 15 patients
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Haematoma below serious, 15 patients
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Oedema below serious, 15 patients
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Pneumonia below serious, 15 patients
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Blood bilirubin increased below serious, 16 patients
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Alopecia below serious, 17 patients
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Chest pain below serious, 18 patients
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Hypocalcaemia below serious, 18 patients
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Aspartate aminotransferase increased below serious, 19 patients
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Erythema below serious, 19 patients
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Blood creatinine increased below serious, 20 patients
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Oral herpes below serious, 22 patients
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Hypoalbuminaemia below serious, 24 patients
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Back pain below serious, 34 patients
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Abdominal pain upper below serious, 39 patients
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Rash below serious, 39 patients
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Thrombocytopenia below serious, 42 patients
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Oedema peripheral below serious, 56 patients
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Hypokalaemia below serious, 83 patients
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Anaemia serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Back pain serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Bile duct stone serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Bronchospasm serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Cardio-respiratory arrest serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Cerebrovascular accident serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Chills serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Cholecystitis acute serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Cholecystitis serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Clostridium difficile colitis serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Drug hypersensitivity serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Dyspnoea serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Encephalitis serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Encephalopathy hepatic serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Enterococcal bacteraemia serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Gastroenteritis serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Hepatic steatosis serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Hepatocellular injury serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Hyperbilirubinaemia serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Hyperglycaemia serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Hypersensitivity serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Hyponatraemia serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Hypotension serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Ileus serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Infection staphylococcal serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Intestinal obstruction serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Joint swelling serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Liver disorder serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Lymphocyte count decreased serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Metastases to central nervous system serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Mucosal inflammation serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Multi-organ failure serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Neutropenia serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Pancytopenia serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Pneumothorax serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Rash papular serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Renal tubular necrosis serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Respiratory distress serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Streptococcal sepsis serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Vomiting serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
White blood cell count decreased serious, 1 patient
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Septic shock serious, 13 patients
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Acute respiratory distress syndrome serious, 2 patients
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Creatinine renal clearance decreased serious, 2 patients
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Hepatic failure serious, 2 patients
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Hypokalaemia serious, 2 patients
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Pancreatitis serious, 2 patients
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Thrombocytopenia serious, 2 patients
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Blood creatinine increased serious, 3 patients
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Device related infection serious, 3 patients
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Cardiac arrest serious, 4 patients
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Pneumonia serious, 7 patients
5 mg/kg 2 times / week steady, intravenous
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg/kg, 2 times / week
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 237
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Population Size: 237
Sources:
Overview

Overview

CYP3A4CYP2C9CYP2D6hERG

OverviewOther

Drug as perpetrator​Drug as victim

Drug as victim

TargetModalityActivityMetaboliteClinical evidence
yes
Tox targets

Tox targets

TargetModalityActivityMetaboliteClinical evidence
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
Combined activity of amphotericin B and 5-fluorocytosine against Cryptococcus neoformans in vitro and in vivo in mice.
1975 Feb
Mitigation of amphotericin B nephrotoxicity by mannitol.
1975 Mar 8
Antifungal activity of HWA-138 and amphotericin B in experimental systemic candidiasis.
1991 Oct
[Drug-induced benign intracranial hypertension. Apropos of a case with amphotericin B. Review of the literature].
1992 Sep-Oct
Risk factors for amphotericin B-induced nephrotoxicity.
1999 Feb
Amphotericin B deoxycholate treatment of visceral leishmaniasis with newer modes of administration and precautions: a study of 938 cases.
1999 May-Jun
Use of amphotericin B colloidal dispersion in children.
2000 May-Jun
Role of humoral mediators in, and influence of a liposomal formulation on, acute amphotericin B nephrotoxicity.
2001 Apr
Amphotericin B induced ventricular arrhythmia and its relation to central venous line.
2001 Oct-Dec
[Radioprotective and antineoplastic activity of polyene antibiotics combined with dimethyl sulfoxide].
2002
Spironolactone: is it a novel drug for the prevention of amphotericin B-related hypokalemia in cancer patients?
2002 Jan
In vitro activity of voriconazole, itraconazole, caspofungin, anidulafungin (VER002, LY303366) and amphotericin B against aspergillus spp.
2003 Feb
Amphotericin B binds to amyloid fibrils and delays their formation: a therapeutic mechanism?
2003 May 27
Single-dose liposomal amphotericin B in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in India: a multicenter study.
2003 Sep 15
Disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis after visceral disease in a patient with AIDS.
2004 Mar
Assessment of nephrotoxicity in patients receiving amphotericin B lipid complex: a pharmacosurveillance study in Spain.
2004 Sep
Caspofungin versus liposomal amphotericin B for empirical antifungal therapy in patients with persistent fever and neutropenia.
2004 Sep 30
Caspofungin versus amphotericin B for candidemia: a pharmacoeconomic analysis.
2005 Jun
Prediction of genotoxicity of chemical compounds by statistical learning methods.
2005 Jun
Refractoriness to the treatment of sodium stibogluconate in Indian kala-azar field isolates persist in in vitro and in vivo experimental models.
2005 Jun
Reversible dilated cardiomyopathy associated with amphotericin B treatment.
2005 May
Candida glabrata prosthetic valve endocarditis treated successfully with fluconazole plus caspofungin without surgery: a case report and literature review.
2005 Nov
Use of Leishmania donovani field isolates expressing the luciferase reporter gene in in vitro drug screening.
2005 Sep
Disseminated invasive aspergillosis in a patient with acute leukaemia.
2006
Amphotericin B-induced severe hypertension in a young patient: case report and review of the literature.
2006
An unusual presentation of rhinofacial zygomycosis due to Cunninghamella sp. in an immunocompetent patient: a case report and literature review.
2006 Jan
Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar)--the Bihar (India) perspective.
2006 Jul
Invasive fungal infection of the maxilla following dental extractions in a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
2006 Mar
[Acute adverse effects following administration of liposomal amphotericin B].
2006 May
Invasive aspergillosis: is treatment with "inexpensive" amphotericin B cost saving if "expensive" voriconazole is only used on demand?
2006 Sep 30
Hypokalemic rhabdomyolysis in a child due to amphotericin B therapy.
2007 Feb
Treatment of Bolivian mucosal leishmaniasis with miltefosine.
2007 Feb 1
Corifungin, a new drug lead against Naegleria, identified from a high-throughput screen.
2012 Nov
Patents

Sample Use Guides

In Vivo Use Guide
Curator's Comment:: Description was created based on several sources, including: http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a0a54943-9ce4-4f3e-b681-a1a9144c16ce
Mice were treated intraperitoneally once daily with 9 mg/kg of corifungin for 10 days. In rats, corifungin is safe up to a level of 250 mg/kg/day when administered by oral gavage for 28 days
Route of Administration: Other
In Vitro Use Guide
Curator's Comment:: Amphotericin B exhibited species-specific concentration-dependent activity, with 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) ranging from 0.10 to 0.12 mg/ml for A. fumigatus, 0.36 to 0.53 mg/ml for A. terreus, 0.27 to ≥32 mg/ml for F. solani, 0.41 to 0.55 mg/ml for F. oxysporum, and 0.97 and 0.65 mg/ml for S. apiospermum and S. prolificans, respectively. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15728887
200 uM corifungin induces subcellular damage to A. castellanii (the presence of swollen mitochondria, electron-dense granules, degeneration of cytoplasm architecture, and loss of nuclear chromatin structure)
Name Type Language
AMPHOTERICIN B
EP   HSDB   INN   MART.   MI   ORANGE BOOK   USP   USP-RS   VANDF   WHO-DD   WHO-IP  
INN  
Official Name English
AMPHOTERICIN
Common Name English
AMPHOTEC
Brand Name English
AMPHOTERICIN B LIPOSOME [VANDF]
Common Name English
AMBISOME
Brand Name English
AMPHOTERICIN B LIPID COMPLEX [MI]
Common Name English
AMPHO-MORONAL
Brand Name English
AMBIL
Brand Name English
FUNGILIN
Brand Name English
AMPHOTERICIN B LIPOSOME
VANDF  
Common Name English
AMPHOTERICIN B [VANDF]
Common Name English
ABELCET, LIPOSOMAL AMPHOTERICIN B
Common Name English
AMPHOTERICIN B [USP MONOGRAPH]
Common Name English
ABELCET
Common Name English
AMPHOTERICIN B [ORANGE BOOK]
Common Name English
ABLC
Common Name English
AMPHOTERICIN B [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
AMPHOTERICIN B [MART.]
Common Name English
AMPHOTERICIN B LIPOSOMAL
Common Name English
AMPHOTERICIN B [INN]
Common Name English
AMPHOTERICIN B [EP MONOGRAPH]
Common Name English
FUNGIZONE
Brand Name English
AMPHOTOCERIN
Common Name English
AMPHOTERICIN B LIPOSOMAL COMPLEX [MI]
Common Name English
AMPHOTERICIN B DEOXYCHOLATE [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
AMPHOTERICIN B [JAN]
Common Name English
AMPHOTERICIN B LIPID COMPLEX
MI   VANDF  
Common Name English
AMPHOTERICIN B [WHO-IP]
Common Name English
AMPHOTERICIN B [MI]
Common Name English
AMPHOTERICIN B LIPOSOMAL COMPLEX
MI  
Common Name English
NSC-527017
Code English
AMPHOTERICIN B [HSDB]
Common Name English
AMPHOTERICIN B LIPID COMPLEX [VANDF]
Common Name English
HALIZON
Common Name English
AMPHOTERICINUM B [WHO-IP LATIN]
Common Name English
AMPHOTERICIN B [USP-RS]
Common Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
WHO-VATC QJ02AA01
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
NDF-RT N0000175498
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
FDA ORPHAN DRUG 315310
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
WHO-ESSENTIAL MEDICINES LIST 6.5.2
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
WHO-ATC G01AA03
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
FDA ORPHAN DRUG 416113
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
WHO-VATC QG01AA03
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
NDF-RT N0000175510
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
WHO-ATC J02AA01
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
FDA ORPHAN DRUG 99496
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
WHO-VATC QA07AA07
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
FDA ORPHAN DRUG 57891
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
WHO-ATC A07AA07
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
FDA ORPHAN DRUG 99696
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
FDA ORPHAN DRUG 97796
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
WHO-ATC A01AB04
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
FDA ORPHAN DRUG 97396
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
WHO-VATC QA01AB04
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
FDA ORPHAN DRUG 97696
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
FDA ORPHAN DRUG 97096
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
FDA ORPHAN DRUG 210805
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
WHO-ESSENTIAL MEDICINES LIST 6.3
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
FDA ORPHAN DRUG 96996
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
NCI_THESAURUS C514
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
FDA ORPHAN DRUG 703119
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
NDF-RT N0000007672
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
FDA ORPHAN DRUG 99596
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
LIVERTOX 51
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
Code System Code Type Description
RXCUI
236594
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
ALTERNATIVE
RXCUI
2001759
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
ALTERNATIVE
ECHA (EC/EINECS)
215-742-2
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
DRUG CENTRAL
197
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
WIKIPEDIA
AMPHOTERICIN B
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
RXCUI
732
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
WHO INTERNATIONAL PHARMACOPEIA
AMPHOTERICIN B
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
PRIMARY Description: A yellow to orange powder; odourless or almost odourless. Solubility: Practically insoluble in water, ethanol (~750 g/l) TS, toluene R and ether R; soluble in 200 parts of dimethylformamide R and in 20 parts of dimethyl sulfoxide R, slightly soluble in methanol R. Category: Antifungal drug. Storage: Amphotericin B should be kept in a tightly closed container, protected from light, and stored at a temperature between 2 and 8 ?C. Labelling: The designation Amphotericin B for parenteral use indicates that the substance complies with the altered and additional requirements for Amphotericin B and may be used for parenteral administration. Additional information: Even in the absence of light, Amphotericin B is gradually degraded on exposure to a humid atmosphere, the decomposition being faster at higher temperatures. In diluted solutions it is sensitive to light and is inactivated at low pH values. Definition: Amphotericin B contains not less than 750 μg per mg, calculated with reference to the dried substance.
USP_CATALOG
1032007
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
PRIMARY USP-RS
ChEMBL
CHEMBL267345
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
FDA UNII
7XU7A7DROE
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB05486MIG
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB20545
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EPA CompTox
1397-89-3
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
INN
869
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
PUBCHEM
5280965
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB12887MIG
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
DRUG BANK
DB00681
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB119245
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
NCI_THESAURUS
C238
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
MESH
D000666
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
RXCUI
42527
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
ALTERNATIVE
MERCK INDEX
M1852
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
PRIMARY Merck Index
HSDB
3008
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
LACTMED
Amphotericin B
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
CAS
1397-89-3
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:52:15 UTC 2021
PRIMARY