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Details

Stereochemistry RACEMIC
Molecular Formula C10H16O
Molecular Weight 152.2338
Optical Activity ( + / - )
Defined Stereocenters 2 / 2
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of CAMPHOR (SYNTHETIC)

SMILES

CC1(C)[C@]2([H])CC[C@@]1(C)C(=O)C2

InChI

InChIKey=DSSYKIVIOFKYAU-XCBNKYQSSA-N
InChI=1S/C10H16O/c1-9(2)7-4-5-10(9,3)8(11)6-7/h7H,4-6H2,1-3H3/t7-,10+/m1/s1

HIDE SMILES / InChI
Camphor is a bicyclic monoterpene ketone found widely in plants, especially cinnamomum camphora. Topically, camphor is used to relieve pain. It has been used to treat warts, cold sores, hemorrhoids, and osteoarthritis. It has also been applied topically as an analgesic and an antipruritic. It has been used as a counterirritant, and to increase local blood flow. Camphor has frequently been used topically to treat respiratory tract diseases involving mucous membrane inflammation. It is sometimes used topically to treat cardiac symptoms. Camphor is also used topically as an eardrop, and for treating minor burns. In inhalation therapy, camphor is used as an antitussive. Orally, camphor is used as an expectorant, antiflatulent, and for treating respiratory tract diseases. Today, most camphor is synthetic. It is approved by the FDA as a topical antitussive. Camphor is produced synthetically from the oil of turpentine. It has been used for centuries for its medicinal features, in religious rituals, and in cooking. It is no longer used as pesticide. In 1982, the US Food and Drug Administration restricted commercial products intended for medicinal use to contain <11% camphor.

CNS Activity

Curator's Comment:: Camphor is highly lipid soluble and easily crosses the blood–brain barrier. Camphor is a CNS stimulant whose effects range from mild excitation to grand-mal convulsions or status epilepticus. These effects result from excitation of the cerebrum and lower structures of the CNS.

Approval Year

TargetsConditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Palliative
Camphor ointment

Approved Use

Camphor ointment is used for: Treating pain and itching associated with minor skin irritations. Camphor ointment is a topical analgesic. It works by temporarily relieving itching and pain.
Primary
CAMPHOR, EUCALYPTUS OIL AND MENTHOL - camphor, eucalyptus oil and menthol ointment CVS

Approved Use

Uses - on chest and throat, temporarily relieves cough due to common cold - On muscles and joints, temporarily relieves minor aches and pains
Palliative
Tetramex Spray

Approved Use

INDICATIONS AND USAGE: For temporary relief of minor aches and pains of the muscles and joints associated with simple backache, arthritis, strains, bruises and sprains.
Cmax

Cmax

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
41 ng/mL
374.4 mg single, topical
dose: 374.4 mg
route of administration: Topical
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered: MENTHOL, UNSPECIFIED FORM
[NO STEREO] CAMPHOR, (-)-|[NO STEREO] CAMPHOR (SYNTHETIC)|[NO STEREO] CAMPHOR (NATURAL) plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
AUC

AUC

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
302 ng × h/mL
374.4 mg single, topical
dose: 374.4 mg
route of administration: Topical
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered: MENTHOL, UNSPECIFIED FORM
[NO STEREO] CAMPHOR, (-)-|[NO STEREO] CAMPHOR (SYNTHETIC)|[NO STEREO] CAMPHOR (NATURAL) plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
T1/2

T1/2

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
6.5 h
374.4 mg single, topical
dose: 374.4 mg
route of administration: Topical
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered: MENTHOL, UNSPECIFIED FORM
[NO STEREO] CAMPHOR, (-)-|[NO STEREO] CAMPHOR (SYNTHETIC)|[NO STEREO] CAMPHOR (NATURAL) plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
Factors affecting the pharmacokinetics of CPT-11: the body mass index, age and sex are independent predictors of pharmacokinetic parameters of CPT-11.
2001
Phase I study of irofulven (MGI 114), an acylfulvene illudin analog, in patients with acute leukemia.
2001
Irinotecan and mitomycin C in 5-fluorouracil-refractory colorectal cancer patients. A phase I/II study of the Southern Italy Cooperative Oncology Group.
2001
Treatment of extensive stage small cell lung cancer.
2001
Lung cancer: therapeutic options for stage IV and recurrent NSCLC.
2001
Chemoradiation in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
2001
A synthetic inhibitor of p53 protects neurons against death induced by ischemic and excitotoxic insults, and amyloid beta-peptide.
2001 Apr
Validation study of assay method for DX-8951 and its metabolite in human plasma and urine by high-performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry.
2001 Apr
Pharmacogenetics of anticancer agents: lessons from amonafide and irinotecan.
2001 Apr
Inhibitory effect of berberine on the mediastinal lymph node metastasis produced by orthotopic implantation of Lewis lung carcinoma.
2001 Apr 10
DNA double-strand breaks associated with replication forks are predominantly repaired by homologous recombination involving an exchange mechanism in mammalian cells.
2001 Apr 13
Monochloramine inhibits etoposide-induced apoptosis with an increase in DNA aberration.
2001 Apr 15
Prevention of irinotecan (CPT-11)-induced diarrhea by oral alkalization combined with control of defecation in cancer patients.
2001 Apr 15
North Central Cancer Treatment Group--Mayo Clinic trials in colon cancer.
2001 Feb
Modulation of camptothecin analogs in the treatment of cancer: a review.
2001 Feb
Adjuvant therapy of colon cancer.
2001 Feb
[Weekly low dose CPT-11 for multiple lung metastases of colon cancer on an out-patient treatment: a case report].
2001 Feb
Relation between 9-aminocamptothecin systemic exposure and tumor response in human solid tumor xenografts.
2001 Feb
Why drugs fail: of mice and men revisited.
2001 Feb
Prospective phase II trial of iriontecan, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin in combination as salvage therapy for advanced colorectal cancer.
2001 Feb
Different susceptibilities of postmitotic checkpoint-proficient and -deficient Balb / 3T3 cells to ICRF-193, a catalytic inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase II.
2001 Feb
High-Performance liquid chromatographic analysis of lactone and hydroxy acid of new antitumor drug, DX-8951 (exatecan), in mouse plasma.
2001 Feb
Novel cytotoxic 7-iminomethyl and 7-aminomethyl derivatives of camptothecin.
2001 Feb 12
Antitumor activity of the rapamycin analog CCI-779 in human primitive neuroectodermal tumor/medulloblastoma models as single agent and in combination chemotherapy.
2001 Feb 15
Irinotecan and chronomodulated infusion of 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid in the treatment of patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma: a phase I study.
2001 Feb 15
Phase II study of irinotecan as first-line chemotherapy for patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma.
2001 Feb 15
The homocamptothecin BN 80915 is a highly potent orally active topoisomerase I poison.
2001 Jan
A novel genetic screen identifies checkpoint-defective alleles of Schizosaccharomyces pombe chk1.
2001 Jan
New state of the art in small-cell lung cancer.
2001 Jan
Current status of irinotecan in lung cancer.
2001 Jan
Irinotecan: summary and future directions.
2001 Jan
Docetaxel followed by gemcitabine and irinotecan in solid tumors.
2001 Jan
Irinotecan in combined-modality therapy for locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.
2001 Jan
Rationale and dose-finding studies of the combination of irinotecan and a taxane on a weekly schedule.
2001 Jan
Establishment of the standard regimen for non-small-cell lung cancer in Japan.
2001 Jan
Irinotecan in small-cell lung cancer: the US experience.
2001 Jan
Ecteinascidin 743 induces protein-linked DNA breaks in human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells and is cytotoxic independently of topoisomerase I expression.
2001 Jan
The HER tyrosine kinase inhibitor CI1033 enhances cytotoxicity of 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin and topotecan by inhibiting breast cancer resistance protein-mediated drug efflux.
2001 Jan 15
Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2 reduces chemotherapy-associated mortality and enhances cell survival in cells expressing a transfected GLP-2 receptor.
2001 Jan 15
Use of camptothecin-resistant mammalian cell lines to evaluate the role of topoisomerase I in the antiproliferative activity of the indolocarbazole, NB-506, and its topoisomerase I binding site.
2001 Jan 15
Topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complexes in human colorectal cancer xenografts with different p53 and microsatellite instability status: relation with their sensitivity to CTP-11.
2001 Jan-Feb
Biodistribution of NX211, liposomal lurtotecan, in tumor-bearing mice.
2001 Mar
[A case of AFP-producing gastric cancer responding to low-dose CPT-11 and low-dose cisplatin combination chemotherapy].
2001 Mar
Sequence-selective DNA binding drugs mithramycin A and chromomycin A3 are potent inhibitors of neuronal apoptosis induced by oxidative stress and DNA damage in cortical neurons.
2001 Mar
Characterization of a novel topoisomerase I mutation from a camptothecin-resistant human prostate cancer cell line.
2001 Mar 1
Irinotecan in the treatment of colorectal cancer: clinical overview.
2001 Mar 1
Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of exatecan mesylate (DX-8951f): a novel camptothecin analog.
2001 Mar 1
Carrier and dose effects on the pharmacokinetics of T-0128, a camptothecin analogue-carboxymethyl dextran conjugate, in non-tumor- and tumor-bearing rats.
2001 Mar 12
Hippocampal neurons of mice deficient in DNA-dependent protein kinase exhibit increased vulnerability to DNA damage, oxidative stress and excitotoxicity.
2001 Mar 5
Potentiation of antitumor activity of irinotecan by chemically modified oligonucleotides.
2001 May
Patents

Sample Use Guides

In Vivo Use Guide
Curator's Comment:: Subcutaneous: The dose of subcutaneously injected camphor required to produce convulsions in mice was 600 mg/kg http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780443062414000102
Dosing: Adult Cough: Inhalation: Inhale via vaporizer up to 3 times per day. Pain: Topical cream: Apply to affected area up to 4 times per day for 2 weeks. For maximum benefit, use daily for at least 2 weeks and continue to use daily as needed thereafter. Pruritus/Pain: Topical gel: Apply to affected area up to 3 to 4 times per day.
Route of Administration: Topical
1 mM camphor partially inhibited the AITC (20 uM)-induced hTRPA1 current in HEK293T cells expressing hTRPA1.
Name Type Language
CAMPHOR (SYNTHETIC)
Common Name English
CAMPHOR, DL-
Common Name English
2-BORNANONE
Systematic Name English
DL-CAMPHOR
Common Name English
CAMPHOR, RACEMIC
EP  
Common Name English
(+/-)-CAMPHOR
Systematic Name English
CAMPHOR, (+/-)-
Systematic Name English
1,7,7-TRIMETHYLBICYCLO(2.2.1)HEPTAN-2-ONE
Systematic Name English
FEMA NO. 4513
Code English
(1RS,4RS)-1,7,7-TRIMETHYLBICYCLO(2.2.1)HEPTAN-2-ONE
Systematic Name English
BICYCLO(2.2.1)HEPTANE-2-ONE, 1,7,7-TRIMETHYL-
Systematic Name English
CAMPHOR [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
GUM CAMPHOR
Common Name English
CAMPHOR, RACEMIC [EP MONOGRAPH]
Common Name English
2-CAMPHANONE
Systematic Name English
DL-CAMPHOR [JAN]
Common Name English
SYNTHETIC CAMPHOR
Common Name English
CAMPHOR [MI]
Common Name English
CAMPHOR [HSDB]
Common Name English
CAMPHOR [INCI]
Common Name English
Code System Code Type Description
DRUG BANK
DB01744
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
ECHA (EC/EINECS)
200-945-0
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
CAS
76-22-2
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
HSDB
37
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EPA CompTox
76-22-2
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
RXCUI
1371994
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021
PRIMARY RxNorm
ChEMBL
CHEMBL504760
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB11780MIG
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
NCI_THESAURUS
C28136
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
FDA UNII
5TJD82A1ET
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
MERCK INDEX
M3004
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021
PRIMARY Merck Index