U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

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Showing 951 - 960 of 2615 results

Status:
First approved in 1974

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (RACEMIC)


Conditions:

Molindone (Moban) is a therapeutic antipsychotic, used in the treatment of schizophrenia. The exact mechanism has not been established, however, based on electroencephalogram (EEG) studies, molindone is thought to act by occupying (antagonizing) dopamine (D2) receptor sites in the reticular limbic systems in the brain, thus decreasing dopamine activity. Decreased dopamine activity results in decreased physiological effects normally induced by excessive dopamine stimulation, such as those typically seen in manifestations of psychotic disorders. The side effect profile of molindone is similar to that of other typical antipsychotics. Unlike most antipsychotics, however, molindone use is associated with weight loss.
Dantrolene is a drug which was approved by FDA for the treatment of chronic spasticity and malignant hyperthermia (a rare life-threatening clinical syndrome). Dantrolene effect was shown both in vivo and in vitro and proved to be mediated by interaction with Ryanodine receptor 1. The drug has a potential for hepatotoxicity and should be used as indicated in the label.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)


Iothalamic acid is a Radiographic Contrast Agent. The mechanism of action of iothalamic acid is as a X-Ray Contrast Activity. GLOFIL-125 (Sodium Iothalamate I-125 Injection) is a sterile, nonpyrogenic aqueous injection containing approximately 1 mg sodium iothalamate per mL, and 0.9 percent benzyl alcohol as a preservative. The radioactive concentration of the material is 250-300 µCi/mL as of the calibration date. Sodium bicarbonate and hydrochloric acid are present for pH adjustment. GLOFIL-125 (Sodium Iothalamate I-125 Injection) is indicated for evaluation of glomerular filtration in the diagnosis or monitoring of patients with renal disease. The renal clearance of sodium iothalamate in man closely approximates that of inulin. The compound is cleared by glomerular filtration without tubular secretion or reabsorption. Following infusion administration of I-125 iothalamate, the effective half-life is about 0.07 days.
Status:
First approved in 1974

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)



Dopamine, a sympathomimetic amine vasopressor, is the naturally occurring immediate precursor of norepinephrine. G protein-coupled dopamine receptors (D1, D2, D3, D4, and D5) mediate all of the physiological functions of the catecholaminergic neurotransmitter dopamine, ranging from voluntary movement and reward to hormonal regulation and hypertension. Dopamine HCl is indicated for the correction of hemodynamic imbalances present in the shock syndrome due to myocardial infarction, trauma, endotoxic septicemia, open-heart surgery, renal failure, and chronic cardiac decompensation as in congestive failure.
Status:
First approved in 1974

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (RACEMIC)


Conditions:

Terbutaline is a relatively selective beta2-adrenergic bronchodilator that has little or no effect on alpha-adrenergic receptors. The drug has exerts a preferential effect on beta2-adrenergic receptors but stimulates beta-adrenergic receptors less selectively than relatively selective beta2-agonists. Terbutaline appears to have a greater stimulating effect on beta-receptors of the bronchial, vascular, and uterine smooth muscles (beta2 receptors) than on the beta-receptors of the heart (beta1 receptors). This drug relaxes smooth muscle and inhibits uterine contractions, but may also cause some cardiostimulatory effects and CNS stimulation. The pharmacologic effects of terbutaline are at least in part attributable to stimulation through beta-adrenergic receptors of intracellular adenyl cyclase, the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic- 3',5'- adenosine monophosphate (c-AMP). Increased c-AMP levels are associated with relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle and inhibition of release of mediators of immediate hypersensitivity from cells, especially from mast cells. Terbutaline is used for the prevention and reversal of bronchospasm in patients 12 years of age and older with reversible, obstructive airway disease, as well as symptomatic management of reversible bronchospasm associated with bronchitis and emphysema. Also used acute IV and sub-Q therapy in selected women to inhibit uterine contractions in preterm labor (tocolysis) and prolong gestation when beneficial.
Doxorubicin is an antineoplastic in the anthracycline class. General properties of drugs in this class include: interaction with DNA in a variety of different ways including intercalation (squeezing between the base pairs), DNA strand breakage and inhibition with the enzyme topoisomerase II. Most of these compounds have been isolated from natural sources and antibiotics. However, they lack the specificity of the antimicrobial antibiotics and thus produce significant toxicity. The anthracyclines are among the most important antitumor drugs available. Doxorubicin is widely used for the treatment of several solid tumors while daunorubicin and idarubicin are used exclusively for the treatment of leukemia. Doxorubicin may also inhibit polymerase activity, affect regulation of gene expression, and produce free radical damage to DNA. Doxorubicin possesses an antitumor effect against a wide spectrum of tumors, either grafted or spontaneous. Doxorubicin is used to produce regression in disseminated neoplastic conditions like acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloblastic leukemia, Wilms’ tumor, neuroblastoma, soft tissue and bone sarcomas, breast carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma, transitional cell bladder carcinoma, thyroid carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, Hodgkin’s disease, malignant lymphoma and bronchogenic carcinoma in which the small cell histologic type is the most responsive compared to other cell types. Doxorubicin is also indicated for use as a component of adjuvant therapy in women with evidence of axillary lymph node involvement following resection of primary breast cancer.
The mitomycins are a family of aziridine-containing natural products isolated from Streptomyces caespitosus or Streptomyces lavendulae. One of these compounds, mitomycin C, finds use as a chemotherapeutic agent by virtue of its antitumour activity. Mitomycin C has also been used topically rather than intravenously in several areas. The first is cancers, particularly bladder cancers and intraperitoneal tumours. It is now well known that a single instillation of this agent within 6 hours of bladder tumor resection can prevent recurrence. The second is in eye surgery where mitomycin C 0.02% is applied topically to prevent scarring during glaucoma filtering surgery and to prevent haze after PRK or LASIK; mitomycin C has also been shown to reduce fibrosis in strabismus surgery. The third is in esophageal and tracheal stenosis where application of mitomycin C onto the mucosa immediately following dilatation will decrease re-stenosis by decreasing the production of fibroblasts and scar tissue. Mitomycin C is a potent DNA crosslinker. A single crosslink per genome has shown to be effective in killing bacteria. This is accomplished by reductive activation of mitomycin to form a mitosene, which reacts successively via N-alkylation of two DNA bases. Both alkylations are sequence specific for a guanine nucleoside in the sequence 5'-CpG-3'. Potential bis-alkylating heterocylic quinones were synthetised in order to explore their antitumoral activities by bioreductive alkylation. Mitomycin is also used as a chemotherapeutic agent in glaucoma surgery.
Halcinonide is one of the available highly potent topical cor¬ticosteroids. It is a derivative of hydrocortisone and contains important modifications in its structure that alter its absorption, potency, and adverse effects compared with hydrocortisone. Halcinonide—along with desoximetasone, betamethasone, fluocinonide, and diflorasone diacetate—is classified as a Class II potency corticosteroid. Although similar in strength, halcinonide in Halog (the only topical product available that contains halcinonide) differs from many other compounds of this class in the formulation. Halcinonide cream is formulated in a biphasic base that allows for immediate-release of halcinonide upon application to the skin, followed by a delayed and sustained release of halcinonide over time. This “dual formulation” strategy allows for prolonged halcinonide activity. The formulation of halcinonide cream contains microcrystals of halcinonide. An equilibrium is established between dissolved halcinonide in the cream and non-dissolved halcinonide in the microcrystals. As soluble hal¬cinonide enters the skin, additional quantities of halcinonide from the microcrystals become available as a new equilibrium is established. This dynamic equilibrium serves to maintain a sustained level of halcinonide well beyond the time of application.
Mebendazole, known as Emverm is a (synthetic) broad-spectrum anthelmintic that acts by interfering with carbohydrate metabolism and inhibiting polymerization of microtubules. The loss of the cytoplasmic microtubules leads to impaired uptake of glucose by the larval and adult stages of the susceptible parasites, and depletes their glycogen stores. Degenerative changes in the endoplasmic reticulum, the mitochondria of the germinal layer, and the subsequent release of lysosomes result in decreased production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the energy required for the survival of the helminth. Due to diminished energy production, the parasite is immobilized and eventually dies. Emverm tablets are used for the treatment of Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm), Trichuris trichiura (whipworm), Ascaris lumbricoides (common roundworm), Ancylostoma duodenale (common hookworm), Necator americanus (American hookworm) in single or mixed infections. All metabolites are devoid of anthelmintic activity. In man, approximately 2% of administered mebendazole is excreted in urine and the remainder in the feces as unchanged drug or a primary metabolite. Preliminary evidence suggests that cimetidine inhibits mebendazole metabolism and may result in an increase in plasma concentrations drug. Mebendazole sometimes causes diarrhea, abdominal pain, and elevated liver enzymes. In rare cases, it has been associated with a dangerously low white blood cell count, low platelet count, and hair loss, with a risk of agranulocytosis in rare cases
Status:
First approved in 1974

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (RACEMIC)



Ibuprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAIA) or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Ibuprofen has pharmacologic actions similar to those of other prototypical NSAIAs, which are thought to act through inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. It’s used temporarily relieves minor aches and pains due to: headache; the common cold; muscular aches; backache; toothache; minor pain of arthritis; menstrual cramps and temporarily reduces fever. The exact mechanism of action of ibuprofen is unknown. Ibuprofen is a non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, an enzyme invovled in prostaglandin synthesis via the arachidonic acid pathway. Its pharmacological effects are believed to be due to inhibition cylooxygenase-2 (COX-2) which decreases the synthesis of prostaglandins involved in mediating inflammation, pain, fever and swelling. Antipyretic effects may be due to action on the hypothalamus, resulting in an increased peripheral blood flow, vasodilation, and subsequent heat dissipation. Inhibition of COX-1 is thought to cause some of the side effects of ibuprofen including GI ulceration. Ibuprofen is administered as a racemic mixture. The R-enantiomer undergoes extensive interconversion to the S-enantiomer in vivo. The S-enantiomer is believed to be the more pharmacologically active enantiomer.