U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

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Showing 41 - 50 of 1726 results


Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)

Afamelanotide (SCENESSE) is a synthetic α-melanocyte stimulating hormone analog and first-in-class melanocortin-1 receptor agonist that is approved in the EU for the prevention of phototoxicity in adults with erythropoietic protoporphyria. Afamelanotide differs from endogenous α-melanocyte stimulating hormone at the fourth and seventh amino acid residues, increasing its resistance to immediate degradation and increasing its binding time to melanocortin-1 receptor. Afamelanotide is mimic the pharmacological activity of α-melanocyte stimulating hormone by binding to the melanocortin-1 receptor on melanocytes and activating the synthesis of eumelanin. Eumelanin provides photoprotection through mechanisms including, but not limited to, the absorption and scattering of visible and UV light and antioxidant activity. Afamelanotide increases eumelanin density in healthy volunteers and patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria. In healthy, fair-skinned volunteers, a significant increase in melanin density and skin darkening in both sun-exposed and non-sun-exposed sites was seen with subcutaneous injections of afamelanotide. The most common afamelanotide adverse events included headache and nausea. Common adverse effects include back pain, upper respiratory tract infections, decreased appetite, migraine, and dizziness.
Siponimod (BAF312) is a dual agonist at the sphingosine-1 phosphate receptors, S1PR1 and S1PR5. The S1P receptor is commonly found on the surface of specific cells residing in the central nervous system (CNS), that are responsible for causing CNS damage that drives loss of function in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). Siponimod (BAF312) enters the brain and by binding to these specific receptors, may prevent the activation of these harmful cells, helping to reduce the loss of physical and cognitive function associated with SPMS.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)



Pretomanid (PA-824) is an experimental anti-tuberculosis drug. Pretomanid is a bicyclic nitroimidazole-like molecule with a very complex mechanism of action. It is active against both replicating and hypoxic, non-replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis. As a potential TB therapy, it has many attractive characteristics - most notably its novel mechanism of action, its activity in vitro against all tested drug-resistant clinical isolates, and its activity as both a potent bactericidal and a sterilizing agent in mice. In addition, the compound shows no evidence of mutagenicity in a standard battery of genotoxicity studies, no significant cytochrome P450 interactions, and no significant activity against a broad range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This compound has been developed by TB Alliance and is a potential cornerstone of future TB and drug-resistant TB treatment regimens. It is currently undergoing Phase III clinical trials.
Entrectinib (previously known as RXDX-101, NMS-E628) is an investigational drug, potent inhibitor of ALK, ROS1, and, importantly, of TRK family kinases, which shows promise for therapy of tumors bearing oncogenic forms of these proteins. Entrectinib (RXDX-101) is a selective inhibitor for all three Trk receptor tyrosine kinases encoded by the three NTRK genes, as well as the ROS1 and ALKreceptor tyrosine kinases.This investigational drug is active at low nanomolar concentrations, allowing for once-daily oral administration to patients whose tumors have been shown to have gene rearrangements in NTRK, ROS1, or ALK. Nerviano Medical Sciences, the original sponsor for entrectinib (formerly referred to as NMS-1191372), initiated the first-in-human Phase 1 study ALKA-372-001 in Italy in October 2012. The study is currently ongoing in Italy. Entrectinib is currently being tested in a global phase 2 basket clinical trial called STARTRK-2. In the U.S., entrectinib has orphan drug designation and rare pediatric disease designation for the treatment of neuroblastoma and orphan drug designation for treatment of TrkA-, TrkB-, TrkC-, ROS1- and ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).
Upadacitinib (ABT-494) is a Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) inhibitor currently being developed by AbbVie for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, atopic dermatitis, and psoriatic arthritis. It is also being investigated as a potential treatment for people with active ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Currently, upadacitinib is being evaluatedin six global phase III studies in RA and twophase III studies in psoriatic arthritis (PsA), inaddition to phase II studies in Crohn’s disease and atopicdermatitis and a combined phase II/III study inulcerative colitis. Upadacitinib is a potent and selective Janus kinase (JAK) 1 inhibitor with an IC50 of 43 nM.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)

Gallium edotreotide Ga-68 is a radioconjugate consisting of the octreotide derivative edotreotide labeled with gallium 68 (Ga-68). Similar to octreotide, gallium Ga 68-edotreotide binds to somatostatin receptors (SSTRs), especially type 2 receptors, present on the cell membranes of many types of neuroendocrine tumor cells and their metastases, thereby allowing for imaging of SSTR-expressing cells with positron emission tomography (PET). Gallium edotreotide Ga-68 has been authorized in the EU as SomaKit for the diagnosis of gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. It was investigated in clinical trials for imaging of brain tumors, pituitary tumors and neuroendocrine tumors of various origin.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)



Istradefylline is a first-in-class adenosine A2A receptor antagonist antiparkinsonian agent and has been marketed as the brand name NOURIAST® in Japan since May 30, 2013. NOURIAST is indicated for the improvement of wearing-off phenomena in patients with Parkinson’s disease on concomitant treatment with levodopa-containing products.
Selinexor (KPT-330) is a first in class XPO1 antagonist being evaluated in multiple later stage clinical trials in patients with relapsed and/or refractory hematological and solid tumor malignancies.
ODM-201 (also known as BAY-1841788) is a non-steroidal antiandrogen, specifically, a full and high-affinity antagonist of the androgen receptor (AR), that is under development by Orion and Bayer HealthCare for the treatment of advanced, castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). ODM-201 appears to negligibly cross the blood-brain-barrier. This is beneficial due to the reduced risk of seizures and other central side effects from off-target GABAA receptor inhibition that tends to occur in non-steroidal antiandrogens that are structurally similar to enzalutamide. Moreover, in accordance with its lack of central penetration, ODM-201 does not seem to increase testosterone levels in mice or humans, unlike other non-steroidal antiandrogens. Another advantage is that ODM-201 has been found to block the activity of all tested/well-known mutant ARs in prostate cancer, including the recently-identified clinically-relevant F876L mutation. ODM-201 has been studied in phase I and phase II clinical trials and has thus far been found to be effective and well-tolerated, with the most commonly reported side effects including fatigue, nausea, and diarrhea. No seizures have been observed.
Bremelanotide (formerly PT-141) was developed for the treatment of female sexual dysfunction, hemorrhagic shock, and reperfusion injury. Bremelanotide, a synthetic peptide analog of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is an agonist at melanocortin receptors including the MC3R and MC4R, which are expressed primarily in the central nervous system. Bremelanotide originally was tested for intranasal administration in treating female sexual dysfunction but this application was temporarily discontinued in 2008 after concerns were raised over adverse side effects of increased blood pressure. It appears that development for hemorrhagic shock and reperfusion injury has been discontinued. Palatin Technologies licensed North American development and commercialization rights of bremelanotide to Amag in January 2017. In June 2018, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) accepted AMAG Pharmaceuticals’ new drug application for bremelanotide for treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in premenopausal women. If approved, bremelanotide will be available as a self-administered, disposable subcutaneous auto-injector used in anticipation of a sexual encounter.